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Journal Information 

*Invited work such as Forum articles, Comprehensive Invited Reviews, Editorials, Redox Pioneer articles and any other solicited work are not subject to this fee. Authors who have been invited by the Editor-in-Chief to submit a manuscript can request a waiver by sending an email to Upon approval, a one-time exception code will be issued in order to bypass the submission fee. 

About the Journal 

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling (ARS) welcomes highly innovative original contributions dealing with molecular aspects of reactive species, antioxidants, and other redox-dependent processes in biomedical and related systems. Redox-based therapeutics and impact on health care represents a key focus. The Journal features basic as well as clinical research articles and full-length review articles. Original research communications must reflect extraordinary innovation and be extensive in nature. Appropriate videographic supplements are encouraged and viewed as a strength. Such supplements are required for methodological articles. 

Authors whose submissions do not comply with the Instructions for Authors will have their manuscripts un-submitted so that the file(s) may be adjusted accordingly. Directions regarding the necessary corrective actions will be provided in an email to the corresponding author at the time that the manuscript is un-submitted. The submitting author/agent will then be provided with the opportunity to re-upload the corrected file(s). If a manuscript is un-submitted, it will reside in the corresponding author’s “Author Center” as a draft, and the submitting author/agent will be able to make the necessary adjustments and re-upload the manuscript without incurring another manuscript processing charge.  

Manuscript Types and Guidelines 

Original Research Communications 

  • 6,000-word limit (excluding Materials and Methods) 
  • Structured abstract of no more than 250 words: Aims, Results, Innovation, and Conclusion. 
  • Maximum total of eight to ten (8-10) figures 
  • Maximum of 75 references 

Review Articles 

  • 8,000-word limit 
  • Structured abstract of no more than 250 words: Significance, Recent Advances, Critical Issues, and Future Directions
  • Minimum of six (6) figures 
  • Maximum of 200 references 

Comprehensive Invited Reviews 

  • 15,000-17,000-word limit 
  • Structured abstract of no more than 250 words 
  • Minimum of fifteen (15) figures 
  • Maximum of 400 references 

Forum Original Research Communications 

  • 6,000-word limit (excluding Materials and Methods) 
  • Structured abstract of no more than 250 words 
  • Maximum total of eight to ten (8-10) figures 
  • Maximum of 75 references 

Forum Review Articles 

  • 8,000-word limit 
  • Structured abstract of no more than 250 words 
  • Minimum of six (6) figures 
  • Maximum of 200 references 

Forum Editorials 

  • 2,000-word limit 
  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words 
  • No tables or figures 

Redox Pioneers 

  • 2,000-word limit 
  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words 
  • See below for detailed instructions and information regarding the inclusion of photos and figures 

News & Views 

  • 2,000-word limit 
  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words 
  • Maximum of two (2) figures 
  • Maximum of nine (9) references 
  • A NOTES section is required 
  • Supplemental Material is not permitted 

Letters to the Editor 

  • 500-word limit 
  • May include one (1) figure OR table 
  • Reference citations are identical in style to those of full original articles, but should not exceed five (5). 

Word limits do NOT pertain to the abstract, disclosure statements, author contribution statements, funding information, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, or references. 

Description of Manuscript Types

Original Research

Maximum word count for original research communications should not exceed 6,000 words (excluding Materials and Methods). In general, the text should be organized under the headings: Introduction, Results, Discussion, Innovation, and Materials and Methods. Each section should begin on a new page. The Innovation section, which is required, should appear after the Discussion. It cannot exceed 100 words and cannot be diffused. In a sentence or two it must summarize the current state of the field and then cite specific results reported to explain how this work helps to substantially advance the field. If the work has clinical significance, please be sure to highlight that. Do not regurgitate findings. This section must include a simplified summary graphic illustration (Fig. 1 in all submissions) in this section to highlight major advances. This illustration must be brief and simple intended to communicate the core message to readers outside the specific area of expertise. Highlight key advances.

Detailed Methodology and specific catalog number and source of reagents must be included. A brief description of the methodology is not acceptable. Clearly indicate whether data are recorded in electronic laboratory notebook and if so in which platform. Manuscripts should be written succinctly, conform to accepted standards of English style and usage, and cite select references that are directly relevant. Methods-related submissions must include a video supplement demonstrating the key steps.

Illustrations: Continuous data cannot be presented as bar and line graphs. Bar and line graphs must show scatter plot revealing each data point. Box plots and histograms are encouraged.

Number pages (bottom-center) consecutively; the first author’s last name should appear on each page. The source of cells utilized (species, sex, strain, race, age of donor, whether primary or established) should be clearly indicated. The source of reagents should be stated (name, city, state, and catalog number within parentheses) when first cited. Publication of results is based on the principle that results must be verifiable. Authors must accept to make unique reagents available to qualified investigators either directly or through a recognized distributor.

Comprehensive Invited Review

If you are an authoritative expert (senior investigator with long standing and extensive publication record) in a field relevant to the Journal and are interested in contributing a Comprehensive Invited Review article on a topic of general interest, please write to the Editor-in-Chief. These articles are intended to be full-length critical appraisals of topics that would be of long-term archival value. Textbook-style coverage is strongly discouraged. Emphasis should be placed on late-breaking advances and critical treatment. ARS dedicates a substantial amount of space to these articles. Page charges are waived. To ensure balanced treatment of any given subject, these articles are typically reviewed by 6–10 experts in that field. These experts are identified in the publication as Reviewing Editors unless they opt against it. Fees to publish images in color in the online version of the journal are waived for this special track. However, if authors chose to publish images in color in the print version of the journal, there is an associated fee. Please see Publication Costs for more information.

Forum Articles

Initial submission of Forum Review Articles should not be made online unless the designated Forum Editor has a conflict of interest with the authors. Such articles should be submitted by email as PDF files to the designated Forum Editor. If preliminarily accepted by the Forum Editor, please submit the article to ARS via ScholarOne as instructed by the respective Forum Editor. Note that Forum Review Articles that are preliminarily accepted by the Forum Editor will be reviewed for format and deficiencies in format will be subject to additional revision or rejection. Forum Original Research Communications must strictly adhere to guidelines provide above for Manuscript Text and Illustrations. It must be submitted directly via ScholarOne identifying the Forum Editor.

Authors of Forum articles already reviewed and preliminarily accepted by the respective Forum Editor, are advised to perform the following:

  • During online submission, the submitting author will be asked specifically for the name of a Forum Editor. Please correctly enter the name of the specific Editor of the Forum for which you have written the manuscript.
  • On the title page, above the title, identify the article as FORUM ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION or FORUM REVIEW ARTICLE, whichever is appropriate.
  • To submit any non-Forum free-standing review article, please contact the ARS Central Editorial Office.

News & Views – Short Outstanding Observations

This track aims at expediting publication of short communications of outstanding significance. A short title (100 characters) with a question mark at the end is mandatory. The article must include a section on Innovation (100 words) and summary graphic illustration (see above). This section has a major influence on acceptability. A NOTES section should be placed before the Acknowledgments. The “Materials and Methods” part of these articles is moved to the NOTES. Do not shorten this section. Provide ALL details necessary to reproduce your work, including reagent source, catalog number, etc.  Note that these articles are not arranged as the regular Introduction– Innovation–Results–Discussion–Material and Methods pattern. The manuscript is written with focus on certain themes in every paragraph. The tone of the text should focus on raising new questions in light of the observations made, instead of drawing firm conclusions. Abstracts should be limited to no more than 200 words and avoid experimental details. The last line of the Abstract must propose a hypothesis based on the observations reported.

Sample Abstract: “Consumption of alcohol induces protein A in the human brain, which in turn causes specific degeneration of glial cells. We note that protein A is glycated under conditions of diabetes. Such glycation results in a gain of function of protein A, resulting in more extensive glial degeneration in response to alcohol consumption. Our observation leads to the hypothesis that the consumption of alcohol poses increased risk to diabetics compared to matched non-diabetic humans.” For general rules, please follow the guidelines given for regular articles.

Redox Pioneers – Introducing our Most Cited to the New Generation and to the Scientific Community Outside Redox Biology

Anyone (author) may nominate a scientist (nominee) other than themselves who meets the following criteria: the nominee must be someone who (a) has published, as first/last author, at least one PubMed listed publication directly addressing antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times (per data from Web of Science,; (b) has published, as author (any rank), at least 10 publications that have each been cited over 100 times (per Web of Science data); and (c) has expressed, in writing, her/his willingness to be nominated by the individual for the ARS Redox Pioneer series. Once the above three criteria are met, the author may submit an article to ARS in the “REDOX PIONEER” track. The article must strictly meet the format criteria specified below. For general rules, please follow the guidelines given for regular articles.

Title format: Redox Pioneer: Professor John Smith (articles will appear in PubMed as such).

Page after the Title Page: Include a 50-word summary introducing the author and her/his relationship to the nominee.

Abstract (no more than 250 words): Start with “Dr. John Smith (Ph.D. 1966) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published at least one article on antioxidant/redox biology as first/last author that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 articles, each cited over 100 times.” Educational/professional training of Dr. Smith, with reference to institutions (55 words); Summary of top scientific contributions of Dr. Smith (100 words); Relevance of findings to human health (50 words).

Main Body of the Text (not to exceed 2000 words): Background, development, and training (250 words); Area of interest in redox biology, its significance, and how that interest developed (500 words); Description of key finding 1 (250 words, thoroughly referenced): provide this section with a short title highlighting the finding, then describe the finding and how it helped to move the field forward;  Description of key finding 2 (250 words); Description of key finding 3 (250 words); and Other Achievements and Current Position (500 words). A short quotation from the nominee is encouraged in this last section.

Illustrations: The Background section should be supported by a personal photo in black and white (either alone or in a group with family or colleagues); each Key Finding section should be supported with a summary illustration—it could either be a data slide (reproduced with appropriate permission) or a schematic. Figure legends need to be fully explanatory, where the illustration may be understood without reading the main body of text. The section on current position should be supported with a current passport style photo).  Photos of the pioneer should not be numbered as figures, but should be labeled as PioneerPhoto1, PioneerPhoto2, etc.

Supplemental illustrations (mandatory for online publication): Provide a tabulation of the articles (cited as is seen in ARS reference lists)—Table 1 will contain all published articles, where the nominee is the first/last author, that have been cited over 1000 times; Table 2 will contain all published articles, where the nominee is an author (any rank), that have been cited over 100 times. List each article and enter citation data and date recorded next to it.

Supplemental information (not for publication, for peer review): Acceptance letter of the nominee; Full-length curriculum vitae of the nominee.

Acknowledgment (not to exceed 250 words): The nominee may use this section to thank everyone who has played a key role in her/his career. "Professor John Smith thanks...."

Peer Review: Each article is subject to peer review by a panel of top experts in the relevant field. Acceptance will be based on such peer review. If accepted, names of reviewers will appear on the article unless a reviewer specifically chooses to be anonymous. The nominee will also be invited to review for fact check.

Cost:  If accepted, page charges will be waived for this track. However, the author is responsible for the cost of any color reproduction.

Supplementary Information

Only supportive data and figure legends may be submitted as supplements. For any cropped Western blot band shown in the main body of the manuscript, the entire blot including molecular weight markers must be submitted as a Supplement. The figure legend must connect such blot to the appropriate panel of the main figure. No Materials and Methods related text may be submitted as a Supplement.

Abbreviations, Symbols, and Terminology

Include in the manuscript, a list of new or special abbreviations used in the article, with the spelled-out form of the definition. Unfamiliar or new terms should be defined when first used. Jargon, clichés, and laboratory slang should not be used. Internationally accepted biochemical abbreviations such as ADP, NADH, and pi do not need to be defined; other frequently used abbreviations need only to be defined at first mention. For commonly accepted abbreviations, word usage, symbols, etc., authors are referred to The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (8th ed., 2014). Chemical and biochemical terms and abbreviations should be in accordance with the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Isotope specification should conform to the IUPAC system.

Spelling and Compounding

Authors should follow Webster’s Third New International Dictionary for spelling and compounding.

DNA Microarray Data Reporting

It is mandatory that all articles using microarray data analysis comply with the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) standard (

 HUGO Gene Nomenclature

In accordance with the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), authors should obtain approval for new human and mouse gene symbols. Additional information on gene nomenclature guidelines is available from HGNC

Letters to the Editor

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling will consider Letters to the Editor commenting on the scientific content of an article published in the Journal. Letters should not exceed 500 words of text and 5 references. Letters submitted for publication must be original and must not be submitted to any other publication simultaneously. 

Other Instructions 

Cover Letter 

  • The submitting author must accept responsibility for the following: 
  • That the submitting author has the written consent from all authors to submit the manuscript and that all authors accept complete responsibility for the contents of the manuscript. 
  • That the manuscript is not currently under consideration elsewhere and the work reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision has been made as to its acceptability by the Journal (note that posting of submitted material on a website is considered pre-publication). 
  • That the manuscript is truthful original work. 
  • That (where applicable) microarray data reporting, gene nomenclature, and research on fetal tissue matter has been done in compliance with Journal guidelines. If this is not applicable, please state so. 
  •  If the manuscript contains color illustrations, indicate which figures print in color and which print in black and white (see notes below on COLOR REPRODUCTION). Color may not be withdrawn after acceptance of manuscript. If submitted, color must be published at least online. 

Figure Legends 

Figure legends should be uploaded as a separate Word file and double spaced. In the legend, provide explanations for any abbreviations, arrows, etc. that appear in the figure. Figure legends should describe experimental conditions. If the illustration is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured, appropriate credit must be given in the legend, and a corresponding reference must appear in the reference section. 


The use of tables is discouraged. When unavoidable, prepare all tables in one Word file single-spaced with a brief title on a separate page. The title should be brief and informative. All explanatory matter, including explanation of abbreviations, should be in the footnotes, not in the title. Horizontal and vertical lines should be omitted. Use Arabic numerals to number tables. Do not repeat information that is given in the text, and do not make a table for data that can be given in the text in one or two sentences. Cite the tables in sequence in the text. Table footnotes should be listed in order of their appearance and identified by standard symbols *, †, ‡, § for four or fewer; for five or more, use consecutive superior letters. If the table is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured, appropriate credit must be given in the legend, and a corresponding reference must appear in the reference section.   


  • Submission of high resolution .TIFF or .EPS figure files is strongly recommended. 
  • Figures should not be embedded within the manuscript file. Individual data points must be shown using box plots or such other forms. 
  • Cite figures consecutively in text within parentheses. 
  • A legend should be supplied for each figure and all legends numbered consecutively. 
  • Images should not show the name of a patient or a manufacturer.   
  • Do not include any illustrations as part of your text file. 
  • Horizontal and vertical lines should not be used in the background of any line or bar graph. 
  • It is critically important that dead space within figures is kept to a minimum. 
  • All parts (A, B, C...) of any illustration should be arranged on one page. 
  • The figure number or the author’s name should not be printed on the face of the figure. 


Submit high-quality digital copies using the ARS ScholarOne submission system. If hardcopies are required for production, authors of accepted manuscripts will be notified by the production office. Electrocardiograms, kymograms, and oscillograms should be prepared so that the cross-hatched background is eliminated. To avoid problems in processing, use non-photo, blue-ruled instead of black-ruled, recording paper for the originals. 

Color Reproduction 

At the end of the legends of figures that are only available in color in the online version of the journal, the following line should be added: “To see this illustration in color, the reader is referred to the online version of this article at

Note: Any submission that goes through the peer review process with color figures MUST publish in color, using either of the two options noted above. Non-payment of color publication after acceptance will result in withdrawal of the acceptance. 

Correspondence Address 

Following the references, provide the name and complete affiliation and institutional email address of the person to whom correspondence should be sent. 


References must be limited to directly pertinent published works, or articles that have been accepted for publication. Include the reference section as part of the main text file, not as a separate file. The references must be prepared in Word, double-spaced, arranged alphabetically by author, and numbered serially. Use journal abbreviations as provided by PubMed/Medline. All authors should be listed for each reference. The references should be cited in the text at the appropriate point using superscript numbers. 

If references to personal communications or unpublished data are used, they are not to be in the list of references. They should be referred to in the text in parentheses: (AB Jones, personal communication). For “personal communications,” the author must have secured the written permission of the person cited. Submitted articles can be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” and should not be included in the reference list. Include among the references any articles that have been accepted but have not yet published; identify the name of the publication and add "In Press." If the reference has been published online, provide the DOI number in place of the page range. An abstract properly identified (Abstract) may be cited only when it is the sole source. 

Sample style for references: 

Journal article: 

Xiao W, Loscalzo J. Metabolic responses to reductive stress. Antioxid Redox Signal 2020;32:1330–1347. 


Storz JF. Hemoglobin: Insights into Protein Structure, Function, and Evolution. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2018. 

Chapter in a book: 

Olson JS, Ghosh A. Mammalian myoglobin as a model for ligand understanding affinities and discrimination in heme proteins. In: The Smallest Biomolecules: Diatomics and their Interactions with Heme Proteins. Ghosh A, ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2007, pp. 3–17. 


von Gordon J. Boehringer Ingelheim acquires Pharmaxis’ phase 1 anti-inflammatory drug candidate (Press Release). Boehringer Ingelheim. May 18, 2015. Accessed May 29, 2020. 

References to government technical documents should be included only when the corresponding author ensures their availability. For the citation style for these documents and congress proceedings consult recent issues of the Journal. 


General Guidelines

All manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals ( Please consult your specific journal’s requirements for additional information.

All Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journals follow the standards, guidelines, and best practices set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE;, the International Committee of Journal Medical Editors (ICJME;, the World Medical Association (WMA);, and the American Medical Association (

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. recommends that submissions follow standard relevant reporting guidelines. Please consult The Equator Network for more information.

Specific journal requirements will vary, however the general order of elements in each manuscript should be

  • Title page* with full manuscript title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a short running title, a denotation of the corresponding author, and a list of 4-6 keywords/search terms,
  • Abstract,
  • Main text without embedded figures or tables and with appropriate section headings, if applicable. Most research papers should be organized as follows: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.
  • Acknowledgments,
  • Authorship confirmation statement,
  • Author(s’) disclosure  (Conflict of Interest) statement(s), even when not applicable,
  • Funding statement, even when not applicable,
  • References,
  • Tables included in the text or as a separate document,
  • Figure legends at the end of the main text or in a separate Word file,
  • Figures uploaded as individual high-resolution files,
  • Supplemental files uploaded as individual files.

*Double-blinded journals require a separate title page with the title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a denotation of the corresponding author, author acknowledgements, disclosures, and related identifying information.

Your individual journal may require

  • An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval (or waiver) statement and statement of patient consent as a separate paragraph after the methods section,
  • Other relevant ethics attestations (see for further guidance),
  • Data sharing statement,
  • Specific abstract and content sections, depending on manuscript type,
  • Word count limits, tables/figure limits, and reference format requirements.

Please check your journal’s requirements for file formatting. Many journals require formatting compliance only on revision; however, unless stated, the file formatting should comply with the following requirements on submission.

Manuscript Files

The main text file, figure legends, and tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Some journals may accept LaTex. Please consult your individual journal instructions for guidance.

File Naming

  • All file names should be in English and contain only alphanumeric characters.
  • Do not include spaces, symbols, special characters, dashes, dots, or underscores.
  • Title each file with the type of content contained in the file (e.g., manuscript.doc, tables.doc, FigureLegends.doc, Fig1.tif, SupplementalData.pdf, etc.).


  • Submission of high resolution .TIFF or .EPS figure files is preferred. Please upload as individual files.
  • Cite figures consecutively in text within parentheses
  • Images should not reveal the name of a patient or a manufacturer

Figure Legends

  • A legend should be provided for each supplied figure.
  • All legends should be numbered consecutively. 
  • Figure legends may be included at the end of the main text file or uploaded as a separate, double-spaced Word file.
  • In each legend, provide explanations for any abbreviations or symbols that appear in the figure. 
  • If the figure is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.


  • Tables may be included after the references at the end of the main text file, or uploaded as a single, separate Word file. All tables should be editable.
  • Provide a title for each supplied table. 
  • Cite tables sequentially in text within parentheses.
  • Explain abbreviations used in the body of the table in footnotes using superscript letters, not symbols. 
  • If a table is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.

Supplemental Files

  • Supplemental files should be uploaded as individual files. Most text, photo, graphic, and video formats are accepted. Ensure that patient identities are not revealed.
  • Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.
  • For journals that publish accepted versions of papers prior to copyediting and typesetting, supplemental files will not be posted with the paper until after production has been completed.


Upon manuscript submission, the submitting agent will have an opportunity to enter funding/grant information. If funding information is entered correctly, the publisher will deposit the funding acknowledgements from the article as part of the standard metadata to Funder Registry. The entered information should include funder names, funder IDs (if available), and associated grant numbers. Special care should be taken when entering this information to ensure total accuracy. Funding information must also be provided within the manuscript.

Government Funded Research / Funder Requirements

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., adheres to national and international funder requirements. Various funders, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), have specific requirements for depositing the accepted version and/or the article of record version in a repository after an embargo period. Authors funded by these organizations should follow the self-archiving terms and conditions of these separate agreements based on the policies of the specific funding institutions. If you have questions, please contact us for more information.

Peer Review

All submissions are subject to peer review after initial editorial evaluation for suitability. A minimum of two reviews are required for most journals if the manuscript proceeds to the review stage. Final decisions on the manuscript are solely at the discretion of the Editor(s).


Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, in the same form or substantially similar form. Conference abstracts are excluded. If work was presented at a conference, supply the name, date, and location of the meeting as a footnote on the title page of the submission.

Third-party Submissions and Integrity

If a third party is submitting the manuscript, the submitting agent designation must be used, with the identity of the submitting agent disclosed. We reserve the right to reject any manuscript that does not contain this disclosure. The authors are solely responsible for any manuscript submitted on their behalf.


Editors and reviewers must maintain strict confidentiality of manuscripts during the peer-review process. Sharing a manuscript in whole or in part, outside the scope of what is necessary for assessment, is impermissible prior to an accepted manuscript's official publication date. Reviewers are not permitted to contact authors directly.

Sharing of Materials

Authors must honor any reasonable request for materials, methods, or data necessary to reproduce or validate the research findings during peer review unless it violates the privacy or confidentiality of human research subjects.

Conflicts of Interest by the Editor-in-Chief and/or Section Editors

The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors will recuse themselves from participating in the review process of any manuscript in which there is a potential or actual competing interest.

Plagiarism, Peer Review, and Publication Integrity

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is committed to maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process by upholding the highest standards for all published articles. All manuscripts will be analyzed and evaluated for plagiarism, peer review integrity, and publication integrity. Image screening may be applied at any point in the process. Plagiarized manuscripts or manuscripts with evidence of publication, image, or peer review misconduct will be rejected immediately. If publication misconduct is identified, we reserve the right to rescind acceptance prior to publication.


Authorship is defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Roles & Responsibilities. Contributors who do not meet all criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section with a description of their contribution to the work.


All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier.

Corresponding Authors

One author should be designated as the corresponding author who will be responsible for communication between the authors and the journal editorial office and publisher. This individual will be responsible for ensuring all authors submit copyright forms, coordinating and responding to page proofs, and managing any other necessary contact during the peer review and production processes.

The submission system permits only one author to be identified as the corresponding author of record. However, we recognize that some submissions call for more than one corresponding author to be noted. In such cases, select one author to be the main point of contact for all communications regarding the peer review process of the paper, and on the title page of the manuscript, designate additional co-corresponding authors by including an asterisk after the authors' names in the byline. Include an accompanying footnote on the title page that reads, "*Co-corresponding authors." Please ensure that the title page carries the full affiliation details and email address of any author who should be noted as a corresponding author. If the paper is accepted for publication, the full contact information for all designated co-authors will be listed at the end of the article as per usual journal style.

Changes in Authorship

Changes in authorship after submission or acceptance of a paper are generally not permitted, but the editorial leadership recognizes that in certain circumstances, it may be required. The policy for such cases is as follows:

  • A request to alter authorship must be made in writing from the corresponding author to the Editor-in-Chief, with a detailed explanation for the request, the nature of the changes, and the names and affiliations of all authors.
  • Written approval of all authors named on the manuscript, as well as any individual(s) being added to the author list must be provided. The Publisher can provide a form for this, if needed.
  • Upon receipt of the request and all written approvals of all involved parties, the Editor-in-Chief will consider the request, render a decision, and notify the corresponding author.
  • Post-publication changes or alterations to conference abstracts are prohibited.

Author Disclosure Statements

Upon submission, authors are required to fully disclose any interests, funding or employment that may inappropriately influence or affect the integrity of the submission. Authors should disclose

  • Competing Interests. A competing interest exists when an individual (or the individual's institution) has financial or personal relationships that may inappropriately influence his actions. These competing interests may be potential or actual, financial or other.
  • Personal Financial Interests. Stocks or shares in a company that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; consulting fees or other remuneration from an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; patents or patent applications that are owned by or licensed to companies/institutions that may gain or lose value from publication of the article.
  • Funding. Research support by organizations that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article. This support includes salary, equipment, supplies, honoraria, reimbursement or prepayment for attending symposia, and other expenses.
  • Employment. Recent (within the past 5 years), current, or anticipated employment by an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article.
  • Other Competing Interests. Any personal relationship which may inappropriately affect the integrity of the research reported (by an author) or the objectivity of the review of the manuscript (by a reviewer or Editor), for example, competition between investigators, previous disagreements between investigators, or bias in professional judgment.


Authors should identify as their institution(s) the facility where the work was performed and executed. Changes in an author’s affiliation after the work was completed, but prior to the submission or publication of the manuscript should be noted using a superscript asterisk in the author listing and a footnote on the title page indicating “Current Address” and listing the new affiliation. Corrections to affiliations or contact information due to relocation after publication is not permitted.


When reproducing copyrighted material such as figures, tables, or excerpted text, the author(s) of the submitted paper must obtain permission from the original publisher or owner of material and submit it concurrently with the manuscript. The figure or table source must be listed in the reference list. With any copyrighted material, include a footnote with proper attribution (e.g. "Reprinted by permission from Jones et al.") and the appropriate reference. All permissions must be supplied at the time of submission. Authors are responsible for any fees that may be incurred by securing permission to reproduce or adapt material from other published sources.


Institutional Review Board Approvals/Waivers

When reporting research involving human data, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed have been assessed by the responsible institutional and national review committee. If no formal ethics committee is available; authors should indicate if research was completed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Approval by a responsible review committee does not preclude editors from forming their own judgment whether the conduct of the research was appropriate.

If the study is judged exempt from review, a statement from the committee is required. Informed consent by participants should always be secured. If not possible, an institutional review board must decide if this is ethically acceptable. This information should be outlined in the cover letter accompanying the submission, and a sentence declaring adherence should be included in the Materials and Methods section of the main text.

Ethics of Experimentation

See the following resources for studies involving human fetuses, fetal tissue, embryos, and embryonic cells:

Ethical Treatment of Animals

All peer-reviewed submissions containing animal experiments must comply with local and national regulatory principles and contain a statement in the Materials and Methods section of the main text stating whether national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Human Subjects: Patient Consent and Release

If applicable, it is incumbent upon the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce any identifiable images of patients. Any identifying information should not be published in descriptions or photographs unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or patients’ parent/guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be submitted. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity cannot be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are de-identified, the manuscript should contain assurances/statements that such changes do not distort scientific meaning.

In keeping with patients' rights of privacy, the Journal does not require the submission of patient consent forms, but instead requires the author(s) to retain and archive all patient consent documentation. Upon submission of a manuscript for review, the authors must make a statement in the cover letter to the Editor/Journal which attests that they have received and archived written patient consent in addition to providing the requisite statement in the manuscript.

Data Sharing

We recommend, but do not require, the sharing and archiving of data and any other artifacts that define and support the results stated in a manuscript in a suitable public repository (in accordance with valid privacy, legal, and ethical guidelines). We recommend that a data availability statement be included in the manuscript in the Methods section or as a separate section at the end of the main text file. Describe the location of the data, details on how it can be accessed and any licensing information. If the data is not publicly available or accessible, that information should also be provided.

Datasets should be cited in the reference list.

Important: Please check with your funding agencies to ensure that are you following their data sharing polices. If your funding agency has additional requirements exceeding our policy, you must follow the requirements of your funder.

Preprint Servers

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., allows for papers that were previously deposited on preprint servers to be submitted to our journals, with the proviso that the author updates any preprint versions with a link to the final published article. All submissions, even those deposited on preprint servers, are subject to peer review and does not guarantee publication in any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journal.

The submitting author of a paper which was previously deposited to a preprint server should include a disclosure on the title page of the manuscript indicating the name and website of the server and include the DOI number of the preprint.

Referencing/citing non-peer-reviewed material that is found on any preprint server is generally discouraged by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journals, but if it is necessary, the citation must indicate that the content is not officially published in a journal, and can only be found on a preprint server.


Published manuscripts for non-Open Access journals become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. The author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership in such manuscript to the Journal unless alternate arrangements are made prior to publication, including CC-BY licensing or if the Journal publishes under an Open Access model.

Upon acceptance, authors will receive a link to sign and complete the copyright transfer form (subject to exceptions listed above). Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement for not releasing the copyright.

Post Acceptance/Publication

All accepted manuscripts will go through copyediting, typesetting, figure sizing and placement, author proofing, corrections, revisions (from corrected proofs), online-ahead-of-print release, and lastly, issue assignment. Changes or alterations to a submission are not permitted after acceptance but should be addressed in page proofs.

Instant Online Publication (Just Accepted Program)

Journals in the Just Accepted program (formerly known as Instant Online) publish all accepted papers within 72 hours of receipt of all authors' signed copyright agreement forms in their unedited, uncorrected format on our Just Accepted platform.

The information that is published online, and in all indexing services, is pulled directly from the data that is populated into the fields in ScholarOne Manuscripts™ – NOT from the main text file – when the paper is originally uploaded to the system for peer review. Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline, until the next revision* of the article is published. As such, it is critical that authors enter all authors’ names correctly into the system at the time of submission. Any omissions or errors will remain on our website and in indexing services until the subsequent online version is published.

*The next revision will take place after the corresponding author reviews page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher. Once the alterations are completed, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will then be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.

Please note that the typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 3-6 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.

Journals participating in the Just Accepted program do not post any supplemental files/information until post acceptance steps are completed on the submission.

Page Proofs

Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as designated in ScholarOne™ when the manuscript was submitted. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to share the page proofs with co-authors, if desired, and to coordinate all authors' corrections into one proof. The Publisher will not accept corrections from multiple authors/sources.

Author Response to the Galley Proof

The corresponding author is responsible for returning corrected galley proofs. Only corrections directly related to errors in typesetting and/or layout will be allowed. Any requested changes related to content, or that alter the outcome of a study, will require the approval of the Editor, and may require further peer review. If the corresponding author does not respond to page proofs, the manuscript may be delayed in the publication schedule, or published as-is, at the discretion of the Editor. If the corresponding author expects to be unavailable during the time the manuscript is in production, the publisher should be provided with an alternate contact. 

Post Publication Corrections

In the event an error is discovered after publication of an article, the corresponding author should submit the correction in writing to the Journal Editorial Office for consideration. After Editor approval, alterations will be made to the online version of the article, and if the errors are significant, an official correction statement will be issued.

  • Changes to author affiliations or contact details due to relocation after publication are not permitted.
  • Corrections to meeting abstracts will be made only to the online version. The Journal does not issue formal correction statements to meeting abstracts, regardless of the nature of the correction.
  • Correction Statements/Errata to published articles that require the reproduction of color figure(s) and/or table(s) may incur additional costs to the author(s).
  • Requests for post-publication corrections to funding information will require institutional documentation showing that the funds were to be used for the published work. 


Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany the proofs and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after the issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.


Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following

  • Scientific misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Authorship disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist's contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.
  • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.
  • Conflict of Interest: Nondisclosure of any direct or indirect conflicts to the Journal, which prevents you from being unbiased, constitutes misconduct.
  • Misrepresentation: Deliberate misrepresentation of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance a research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another's work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Image Manipulation.
  • Simultaneous Submission: Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.
  • Peer Review Fraud: Individuals who knowingly commit peer review fraud or violate the standard accepted practices of peer review will be reported to their institutions. 

Publisher’s Response to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct

The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into any allegation. As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with Associate Editors and/or members of the Editorial Board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will determine if there is enough reasonable evidence that misconduct possibly occurred. Some instances may require the Editor and/or Publisher to report the instance to the authors’ institution for arbitration and/or investigation. The Editor and Publisher will follow the institutions’ findings for resolution.

When allegations concern conflict between authors, the peer review or publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be substituted in the review process while the matter is investigated.

Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal and reported to their institution(s).

If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record. If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal. If the inquiry leads to a lengthy investigation, the Journal will issue an interim Expression of Concern which will identify the concern for readers until a resolution is reached.

Every attempt will be made to keep all allegations confidential.


The journal and its publisher are committed to upholding the proper protocols and established standards of peer review. Published papers found to be in violation of the accepted standard principles of peer review and scientific publishing will be officially retracted from the literature. An official retraction notice explaining in full detail the need for a retraction will be published.

**Any fees collected for an article that is subsequently retracted are non-refundable.

Press Embargo

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., permits the use of accepted pre-published manuscripts for the sole purpose of pitching to news organizations under strict embargo, and with the approval of and expressed collaboration with the publisher. A watermarked PDF version of the article (not a Word document or any other editable version) may be shared only with named, personal contacts at trusted news sources upon request. News sources must be informed upon delivery of the PDF that the manuscript is for reference-only purposes and can be used only in preparation of their news coverage of the article. It is strictly prohibited to publicly share, post, or otherwise distribute the PDF in any media format. Upon official publication of the article, news organizations must link directly to the published article on the Publisher’s Journal website. To coordinate publication timing and press efforts, please contact the Director of Marketing.


Three versions of the article format are referenced in the policy guidelines below:

  • Original Submission: The article version that is submitted by the author for consideration, before peer review.
  • Accepted Version: The article version that has been formally accepted after peer review, prior to any typesetting for the journal. This is the version accepted by the Editor, before proofs, corrections, and typesetting. Also known as the “raw” accepted version of a manuscript.
  • Article of Record: This article version is the “version of record” that has been formally copyedited, typeset, and published online ahead of print and/or in a journal issue. It is the same version published in the “Online Now” section of the Journal website.

Self-Archiving Policy

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers offer authors many options and opportunities to self-archive their work.

• Subscription/Hybrid Journals
  Embargo Personal Website Institutional Repository or Company Website Preprint Server Other Repository
Original Submission No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Accepted Version Personal Website: No Institutional or Other Repository: 12 months post-publication *No embargo if Open Access is purchased Yes Yes No Yes
Article of Record Yes With Open Access license or publisher permission only With Open Access license or publisher permission only No With Open Access license or by funder requirement

• Open Access Journals All Open Access journals at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. assign a CC-BY license to authors, unless otherwise noted. Below are the policies consistent with this license. For more information on this license, please visit Creative Commons.
  Embargo Personal Website Institutional Repository or Company Website Preprint Server Other Repository
Original Submission No No Yes Yes Yes
Accepted Version No Yes Yes No Yes
Article of Record Yes Yes Yes No Yes

Learn more about publishing your work Open Access here.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ society partners or associated affiliates may set self-archiving policies independently, outside of the general policies mentioned below. Authors should refer to the copyright policy of their chosen journal, or by contacting the specific journal editorial office directly. In addition, specific funding organizations have separate agreements and authors should refer to the policies of those specific funding agencies prior to the submission of their manuscript.

If your submission is formally accepted after peer review in one of our journals, authors must include an acknowledgement of acceptance for publication on all archive sites and, following online publication, authors must include the following notice on the first page:

This is the original submission version (pre-peer review) of the following article: [full citation], which has now been formally published in final form at [journal title] at [link to final article using the DOI]. This original submission version of the article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ Self-Archiving Terms and Conditions.

The original submission version posted may never be updated or replaced with the article of record version unless the author chooses to publish their paper Open Access under any of the Creative Commons Licenses available through the Publisher. If you are interested in publishing your work Open Access, please feel free to review our Open Access Policies and Licenses or contact us.

Other Terms and Conditions

Authors may use either the original submission or accepted version for curricular or teaching purposes, dissertations, theses, or books, provided that all posted versions include the aforementioned policies, and follow all guidelines and requirements specified. Additionally, authors may share original submission or accepted versions with researchers and research colleagues provided that such sharing is not for commercial purposes.

The self-archived submitted and accepted versions may only be used in non-commercial capacities. Individual users may view, print, download, and copy self-archived articles, as well as text and data mine the content conditions for non-commercial and non-promotional research and private study purposes, under the following requirements

  • The authors' moral rights are not compromised and there is clear "attribution" of the author(s) in the shared work.
  • The authors’ integrity remains intact; the work should never be altered in such a way that the author's reputation may be damaged.
  • Any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content.
  • Self-archived content may never be republished verbatim in whole or in part in print or online formats.

U.S. Sanctioned Countries

The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on US foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. (Source: Office of Foreign Assets Control – Sanctions Program and Information)

Our journal Editors welcome contributions from researchers around the world; however, they are also required to follow sanction laws and regulations. As of August 2020, sanction measures imposed by the United States, United Nations, European Union, and Australia are currently in place against the following countries: Cuba, Crimea, Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Journal editors will treat with caution any submission from a sanctioned country regarding the subject matter and will seek appropriate legal advice from the publisher if necessary.

Papers from sanctioned countries that are submitted to any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journal MUST contain a confirmation statement after the conclusion section of the manuscript which indicates that EACH listed author confirms that their research is supported by an institution that is primarily involved in education or research.

For further questions, please contact our Director of Production and Editorial Operations.

Archiving and Preservation

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., deposits and archives all publications in Portico for long-term digital preservation. Your article will be easily searchable on Google, Google Scholar, and other search engines.

Publisher Information

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, NY 10801; Tel: 914-740-2100; Email:; Website:

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers has partnered with Editage and Impact Science to provide a dynamic suite of specialized editorial services to ensure your manuscript has the impact it deserves.


Make Your Manuscript Submission-Ready

English Language Editing Services
Our pre-submission English Language Editing Services pair you with a highly qualified native English-speaking editor within your specific field of study. Dedicated support includes a detailed review of grammar, punctuation, terminology, and spelling, as well as an intensive edit for organization. We also offer post-submission support where needed.

English-Language Translation with Editing Services
Write your paper in your native language and our expert team will provide you with a translation that meets international publication standards while preserving the science and accuracy of your manuscript. Our translators and editors offer subject-specific expertise and editing skills to ensure that your manuscript conveys every nuance of your research to a global audience.


Accelerate Your Research Impact

Research Promotion Services
Amplify your research with engaging infographics, video abstracts, plain language summaries, and more to ensure your manuscript is discovered, read, and cited. Our specialized team of communication experts, scientists, and designers will transform your research into impactful text, graphical, and audio-visual formats that resonate with a wider audience and increase engagement.

Visit our Author Services portal now for more information and to get started!


All Editage services are fee-based services that authors can opt-into as an added author benefit to amplify the readability, visibility, findability, and shareability of their work.

Liebert Open Access

Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) option

Explore Liebert Open Access

Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?

The Liebert Open Access option enables authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.

The benefits of Liebert Open Access include:

  • High visibility; open access articles are freely available online upon publication
  • You retain copyright with the open access license allowing broad dissemination of your research
  • You can freely share your article in repositories and research networks without restrictions
  • Easy compliance with open access mandates
  • Rigorous editorial and peer-review
  • Targeted email announcement featuring a direct link to article

Identification and Marketing

Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC alerts, and in marketing announcements. Open access articles are highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.

Copyright and Licensing

If you choose to publish with open access, you will retain copyright of your article and a Creative Commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

At this time we allow authors to choose between the CC-BY or CC-BY-NonCommercial license. A limited number of journals offer NonCommercial licenses exclusively.

Ordering Open Access

Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Access. If you would like more information about Liebert Open Access or would like to order open access, please email

Publishing open access includes an article publication charge (APC) and authors are asked to fill out a short open access order form.  You can pay by credit card or receive an invoice to be returned with payment or via bank transfer. Please remember that traditional subscription journals can carry mandatory or optional author fees. The Liebert Open Access APC does not cover or replace existing publication or author fees.

Publishing biomedical or biotechnology research?

Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. For details, please visit the information for authors on the journal website.

 *Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.


Browse journals in the Liebert Open Access portfolio:

  • There is a $75.00 USD manuscript submission fee for Antioxidants & Redox Signaling.  Payment of this fee ensures a preliminary assessment of the paper by the Editor(s)-in-Chief, Associate Editor(s), or other members of the editorial board to assess the suitability of the manuscript for the journal.  It does not guarantee that the submission will be processed through full peer review, and it does not  guarantee acceptance for publication.  The submission fee is non-refundable regardless of editorial outcome or decision on any manuscript, or for duplicate/erroneous submissions.
  • Page charges for Antioxidants & Redox Signaling are set at $75.00 USD per typeset page.  Nonpayment of page charges may result in a delay in publication.  Costs for publishing images in color are a separate fee and are not included in the page charge total.  Page charges are waived (color charges still apply) for authors of Forum Articles and for those who contribute a Comprehensive Invited Review. 
  • Please contact for costs for publishing images in color.
  • Open Access and Creative Commons (CC-BY / CC-BY-NC) licensing options are available. Contact our Open Access Manager for more information.
  • For pricing and purchasing reprints, contact our Reprints Manager.
  • Any fees collected or payments associated with a submitted and/or published paper that is subsequently withdrawn and/or retracted for any reason are non-refundable.

The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them.