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Information For Authors

Breastfeeding Medicine is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal that will publish original scientific papers, reviews, and clinical case studies covering the epidemiology and physical basis for the benefits of breastfeeding, the pathophysiologic basis for the health consequences of artificial feeding, the impact of breastfeeding and lactation on physical and psychological health, indications and contraindications, and the effects of drugs on breastfeeding, as well as the broad range of social, cultural, and economic issues.


Breastfeeding Medicine follows the American Medical Association (AMA) 10/e, guidelines for all submissions, and adheres to the standards and best practices set forth by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics

Manuscripts must be submitted online using the following URL:

All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier. Please visit the ORCID website for more information, or to register.

Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract. Prior abstract publications should be described in the form of a footnote to the title. Published manuscripts become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. By submitting a manuscript to the Journal, the author(s) agree(s) to each of the above conditions. In addition, the author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership he/she (they) may have in such manuscript to the Journal. 

Upon acceptance of any manuscript, all authors will receive a follow-up email with instructions on how to complete our online Copyright Agreement form.  It is critical to ensure the accuracy of ALL authors’ email addresses when uploading submissions to Manuscript Central to ensure the proper delivery of all email communications.


The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with coauthors to make sure they have completed the online copyright form. Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement of the reason for not releasing the copyright.



Guidance regarding specific types of submissions is noted below.  The peer review process is applied to all submissions.

Original Papers are scientific reports of the findings of original basic science, clinical, or epidemiological research. Authors are encouraged to prepare their submissions in accordance with the CONSORT Guidelines ( Text should be limited to 3,500 words including the abstract.  A maximum of five tables or figures (total) may be included.  Authors are asked to limit references to no more than 40 references. 

Review Papers are often solicited by the Editors of Breastfeeding Medicine but unsolicited papers will be considered.  Authors of review papers are encouraged to prepare their submissions in accordance with the PRISMA Guidelines (  Please contact the Editorial Office prior to writing a review paper.

Clinical Practice papers are reviews of topics in breastfeeding medicine relevant to practicing physicians both in primary care or specialty practices (e.g., neonatology, surgery).  Papers should address the clinical concern or problem, evidenced-based strategies for treatment, relevant guidelines from professional organizations, areas where there is a lack of evidence, and conclusions and recommendations.  The text of the manuscript is limited to 2,500 words with a maximum of 3 tables or figures (total).  References are limited to 25. 

Public Health Practice papers are transitional research/analytic evaluation of interventions to improve infant and young child feeding practices.  Papers should address the public health concern or problem, the evidence that led to the choice of interventions, relevant guidelines, the findings, conclusions, and the possible practice recommendations. The text of the manuscript is limited to 2,500 words with a maximum of 3 tables or figures (total).  References are limited to 25.

Drug and Therapeutic Interventions detail the pharmacology and use of specific drugs or other therapeutic interventions during lactation.  Effects on mother and baby are addressed.  The text of the manuscript is limited to 3,000 words with a maximum of 4 tables or figures (total).  References are limited to 50.  If the manuscript is describing an adverse drug reaction,the Naranjo ADR probability scale (Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30:239-245) or other validated scale should be used to assess the likelihood that the events were drug-related. Ranking from the scale must be included in the text. Priority is given to reports for which the scores indicate a probable or definite association. The  scale should be included  also in single case reports that meet the following requirements:  Case Report manuscripts should begin with a brief summary of no more than 250 words.  The text of the paper is limited to 2,500 words with a maximum of 2 tables or figures (total).  References are limited to 25.

Progress in Breastfeeding Medicine papers are scholarly, comprehensive overviews of important clinical subjects that focus on progress in medical treatment of problems in breastfeeding medicine over the past 10 years.  Papers detail how perceptions of the disease process, approach to diagnosis, and therapy have changed over time.  The text of the manuscript is limited to 2,500 words with a maximum of 2 tables or figures (total).  References are limited to 50. 

Case Report papers describe one to several patients, or a public health case report, on pilot interventions, or programs of interest.  Manuscripts should begin with a brief summary of no more than 250 words.  The text of the paper is limited to 2,500 words with a maximum of 2 tables or figures (total).  References are limited to 25.

Clinical Problem-Solving Reports consider the processes of clinical decision making.  Information about the patient is presented to an expert clinician to simulate the way information is available to the physician in clinical practice.  The clinician then responds illustrating the critical-thinking process as new information about the patient emerges. The text of the manuscript is limited to 2,500 words with a maximum of 2 tables or figures (total). The inclusion of relevant clinical illustrations (e.g., photographs of lesions, x-rays) is encouraged.  References are limited to 25. 

Cases in Breastfeeding Medicineare solicited by the Special Editor for Case Reports



Editorials provide commentary on papers in the current issue and are generally solicited.
History of Breastfeeding Medicine papers are usually solicited but the Journal will consider unsolicited contributions.  Please contact the Editorial Office for further information.

Images in Breastfeeding Medicine are classic images of common medical conditions in breastfeeding medicine.  They are meant to illustrate the wide variety of clinical findings encountered by the practicing physician.  A short summary of relevant clinical and/or descriptive text is included of no more than 100 words.  Please see specific instructions for submission of photographs under Figures and Illustrations in the General Instructions.


Speaking Out papers are opinion essays.  They are similar to editorials but not tied to a particular paper in the Journal.  They often present opinions on health policy issues.  Unsolicited contributions are welcomed.  Text is limited to 2,500 words. 

Global Issues and Policy Change papers may emerge from international meetings, expert consultations, or controversies in the literature.  They should provide sufficient history, evidence, and relevant available guidance regarding the issue, as well as discuss the implications of the global issue or policy change in terms of both the health of the public and clinical medicine.

Legal Issues in Breastfeeding Medicine papers are usually solicited but the Journal will consider unsolicited contributions.  Please contact the Editorial Office for further information.

Letters to the Editor provide a forum for readers to comment about papers published in recent issues of Breastfeeding Medicine. They are also a place to publish concise reports of unusual cases and pilot data from small studies. Text should be limited to 500-750 words; a single figure or table may be included. No more than 4 references are permitted.

• Prepare the text of the manuscript in Word.  Figures should not be included as part of the manuscript file. 

• Figures and graphics should be in standard TIFF or EPS formats.

• Tables can be prepared in Word or other software, but must be submitted as separate files.

• All submissions should be formatted for US letter paper (8.5  x  11 inches) and should be double spaced.

•  If work was previously presented and/or published in abstract form, provide full information either as a footnote on the title page, or in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript.


list previous publication of their work in abstract form in the acknowledgments (or title page).


1.  Manuscripts should be prepared double spaced in Microsoft Word. Number the pages consecutively, including the title page. Leave 1-inch margins on all sides. Do not use justified margins.

2.  Cite references, figures, and tables in numeric order. If any material has been published previously (figures, tables, etc.), provide written permission from the copyright holder to use such material.

3.  Consult the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th ed, (Baltimore, MD, Williams & Wilkins, 1998) for style.

4.  Please provide a complete title page, as part of your manuscript file, containing the following elements:  Full title; running title (not to exceed 50 characters, including spaces); authors' names and academic degrees; word count for abstract and text; number of tables and figures; affiliation name and complete address for correspondence (include street name and address as well as PO box, if applicable); address for reprints (if different from corresponding author); fax number; telephone number; and e-mail address. Also include any sources of support that require acknowledgment.


5.  Keywords (Areas of Expertise)

To facilitate the peer review process, select 4-6 keywords from the drop-down list of pre-selected terms when submitting your manuscript.   These keywords will assist in the selection of skilled reviewers in the field for the purposes of peer review.


6.  Manuscript keywords (search terms): On the title page of the manuscript, include a minimum of three (3), maximum of six (6), search terms that will aid in the discoverability of the article in indexing services and search engines.  These terms may or may not be different from the terms you selected for the peer review process and areas of expertise.  You will be asked to retype these search terms in the submission form when uploading your manuscript.  These keywords will be included in the published article.  If the search terms entered do not match the manuscript, the manuscript will serve as the default.




Please supply an abstract of no more than 250 words, which should be self-explanatory and without reference to the text.  Do not cite any references in the

abstract. Limit use of acronyms and abbreviations. Define acronyms at first use with definition in parentheses. Use acronym after first mention and definition.




The body of the manuscript should consist of the following sections in this order:

1) Introduction
2) Materials and Methods
3) Results
4) Discussion
5) Conclusion
6) Acknowledgments
7) References
8) Address and e-mail address for reprint requests or correspondence. (This address will be published at the end of the paper.)

9) Supplemental Information (if applicable); NOTE: Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.)


Prepare each table with its title in a separate file.  Number each table consecutively. Each table must stand alone and contain all necessary information in the legend. The table itself must be comprehensible independently from the text. Details of experimental conditions should be included in the table footnotes. Information that appears in the text should not be repeated in a table, and tables should not contain data that can be supplied within one or two sentences in the text.



Please follow these guidelines for electronic submission of art:

• Figures prepared in a Word file are NOT acceptable for submission.
• Line illustrations must be submitted at 600 DPI.
• Halftones and color photos should be submitted at a minimum of 300 DPI.
• Save art as either TIFF or EPS files. Do NOT submit PDF, JPEG, or PowerPoint files.
• Color art must be saved as CMYK, NOT RGB.
• Printing of color illustrations, with a subsidy from the author, is possible and encouraged. Contact the Publisher for details.



References should be presented using the order of citation method. Please place a superscript numeral in the text that corresponds to the number in the reference list. Below are examples of reference styles:

Journal paper:

Schack-Nielsen L, Larnkjaer A, Michaelsen KF. Long-term effects of breastfeeding on the infant and mother. Adv Exp Med Biol 2005;569:16–23.


Lawrence, RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. Elsevier Science, New York, 2005.

Chapter in a Book:

Howard CR, Lawrence R: Breastfeeding. In: Primary Care for Women, Leppert PC, Piepert JF, eds., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 2003.

List the first three authors' names in the citation followed by et al.  If it is necessary to cite an abstract, this should be designated. Abbreviations of journal titles should follow MEDLINE. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Only works referenced in the text and already accepted for publication can be included.




All authors are expected to disclose any institutional or commercial affiliations that might pose a conflict of interest regarding the publication of a manuscript. Institutional affiliations, as indicated on the title page, should include all corporate affiliations and any funding sources that support the work. Other types of affiliation, including consultantships, honoraria, stock ownership, equity interests, arrangements regarding patents, or other vested interests should be disclosed in the Acknowledgments section.




The author must obtain permission to reproduce figures, tables, and text from previously published material. Written permission must be obtained from the original copyright holder (generally the publisher, not the author or editor) of the journal or book concerned. An appropriate credit line should be included in the figure legend or table footnote, and full publication information should be included in the reference list. Written permission must be obtained from the author of any unpublished material and should accompany the manuscript.




The corresponding author will receive, via email, a link to the page proofs of the paper.  Corrections should be faxed or e-mailed back to the Publisher within 48 hours of receipt of the e-mail. It is critical to provide accurate and current e-mail addresses in the manuscript so that page proofs are not delayed. If your e-mail address changes after the submission of the manuscript, please be sure to notify the Publisher.



Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany page proofs, and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after an issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.



Breastfeeding Medicine is published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 140 Huguenot Street, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215; Telephone: (914) 740-2100; Fax: (914) 740-2101; Email:

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