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Information For Authors




Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals invites original contributions on all research related to furthering the study of cancer therapeutics and research at the intersection of that therapy with radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The mission of the journal is to communicate advances in fields including biotherapy, targeted drug and radionuclide delivery, nanotechnology, and studies that advance the understanding of the mechanism of action and response of cancer to therapeutics.  It is the expectation of this journal that all of the biological, chemical, and radiochemical tools be rigorously applied, characterized appropriately with the results of the studies in submitted manuscripts supported by the application of both rigorous controls and wherever appropriate, statistics. If you are uncertain if your work falls within the scope of the journal, please email the title and abstract of the paper to the Editor prior to submission.

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals follows the American Medical Association (AMA), 10th edition guidelines for all submissions, and adheres to the standards and best practices set forth by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee of Publication Ethics.


All manuscripts must be submitted through our online peer review site*:

All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier. Please visit the ORCID website for more information, or to register.

Third-Party Submissions

Please note that papers submitted by third parties (i.e., editing services or other agents) must submit the manuscript as a submitting agent, using a corporate or official email account. Additionally, the name and company of the submitting agent must be disclosed in the cover letter. Author are responsible for manuscripts submitted by third parties. If we determine that a non-disclosed third party submitted the manuscript without following these procedures, we reserve the right to immediately reject the manuscript without review.

Please read all instructions below before proceeding.

*Create an Account in Manuscript Central
Submissions to Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals are managed through our online peer review system, Manuscript Central.  If you do not already have an account in Manuscript Central specifically for Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, you will need to create one in order to submit your manuscript. Once you create your account, you may log in to the system and click on “Author Center” to begin your submission. (NOTE: Each listed author on a manuscript must either already have an account, or have one created, in the system.  Before creating an account for your co-author(s), search the database using your co-authors’ email addresses to ascertain if an account already exists. If no account exists, you may create one on behalf of your coauthor(s).  For technical assistance, contact


Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, in the same form or substantially similar form, except in the form of an abstract.


All submissions must be in English. Appropriate use of the English language is a requirement for review and publication in Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals. For authors whose native language is not English, we recommend using a service that will aid in the translation and rewriting of material into correct and proper English usage. The Publisher offers this service for a fee prior to official submission. For more information, please contact:  Please note that employing the use of the Publisher’s service is not required, and using it does not guarantee acceptance of any paper. All submissions are subject to peer review.


All submissions are subject to peer review.

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals operates on a single-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the Editor for suitability for the journal.  All manuscripts deemed suitable and appropriate to the journal are sent to two (2) (preferred) or more independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper.  During submission, the authors are required to provide the names, professional instituions, and valid instituional email addresses of five (5) well-qualified reviewers who are not from their university or institution, nor recent collaborators.  Anyone the author prefers not to be considered to review his/her manuscript should be named as a non-preferred reviewer.  Once all uploaded files are submitted, the system will generate an electronic proof in PDF format, which is used for peer review. All correspondence, including the Editor's decision and request for revisions, will be sent via email to the corresponding author of record.  The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles.  The Editor's decision is final and are not open to appeal, except in the case of the most extraordinary of circumstances.

Time in Review

The journal strives to maintain a short, but thorough peer-review process. The average time in review is 30 days, but the Editor will strive to expedite manuscript handling if circumstances dictate.


(Areas of Expertise to be used for peer review)
While uploading your manuscript files, you will be asked to select 4-6 keywords from the drop-down list of pre-selected terms to facilitate the peer review process. These keywords will assist in the selection of skilled reviewers in the field for the purposes of peer review.


Queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures are to be directed to the Editorial Office.


  • Comprehensive complete accounts of significant studies should be submitted as Original Articles (the majority of submissions fall under this category).
  • Revew Articles Suitable review articles that fall within the purview of the journal may introduce readers to topics of current interest or provide comprehensive updates to specific fields and topics that fall within the purview of the journal. Reviews should provide a concise overview of fundamental topics and translational issues. Reviews should be accessible to the broad readership of Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals.
  • Technical Notes or Short Reports are a third category that is intended to provide publication of brief transformative techniques and methodology that researchers will potentially find of value and use in their respective laboratories.  These are, by their nature, intended to be brief and concise (2-3 journal pages), yet fully informative to facilitate immediate use of the related information.


Manuscript Type

Word Limit

Word Limit

Max # of

Max # of

Max # of





Combined total of 10





Combined total of 10

Short Report




Combined total of 5

Technical Note






Letter to the Editor


Not applicable


1 figure OR 1 table

NOTE: Word limits do not include the title, abstract, authors and affiliations, keywords, figure legends, tables, acknowledgements, authorship confirmation statement, author disclosure statements, acknowledgments, or references.  Exceptions to the limitations set herein are permissible at the discretion of the Editor.


(Please follow these requirements and sequence:)


Authorship should be determined at the time of submission. Ensure the author listing is complete and all names are spelled correctly at the time of submission. Also see the section labeled “DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT AUTHORSHIP" in the Journal Policies section.

NOTE:  Third-Party Submissions

Please note that papers submitted by third parties (i.e., editing services or other agents) must submit the manuscript as a submitting agent, using a corporate or official email account. Additionally, the name and company of the submitting agent must be disclosed in the cover letter. Author are responsible for manuscripts submitted by third parties. If we determine that a non-disclosed third party submitted the manuscript without following these procedures, we reserve the right to immediately reject the manuscript without review.

Cover Letter

A cover letter is required and should be uploaded in Manuscript Central as a separate file.  It is strongly recommended that the cover letter specifically explain the importance and impact of the results of the submitted manuscript towards a clinical application.  The cover letter should provide the postal address, telephone number, fax number, and email address of the corresponding author of the manuscript. All editorial correspondence concerning receipt, status, review, revision, and publication of a manuscript will be directed to the corresponding author of record, who is responsible for communicating the manuscript status to all co-authors of the paper and for obtaining the co-authors’ assent to any substantial changes of content or interpretation made during revision. The cover letter must contain the following language for the manuscript to be considered suitable for review: This original manuscript has never been published before and has not been, nor will be, submitted elsewhere while under consideration for publication by Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals.


Manuscripts must be double-spaced, with each page sequentially numbered. Use of a template with numbered lines in the left margin is acceptable. Preferred fonts are Times New Roman, Arial, and Symbol(for equations) in size 12. Other fonts may not translate properly and it behooves the submitting corresponding author to ensure that all special characters (e.g., Greek characters, mathematical symbols, etc.) are represented correctly in the body of the text and not as uninterpretable graphic representations at time of submission.

File naming

  • Name all files in English and use only alphanumeric characters. Do not use symbols, dots, lines, or dashes.

Title Page

Create an Effective Title:

  • Manuscript titles should be brief, contain key terms, and clearly identify the purpose of the work conducted
  • Titles should be no more than 12-15 words
  • Titles should be direct and to the point.  Remember that the journal has a global readership, so clear and concise non-vernacular language is most effective
  • Avoid the use of specific locations in the title
  • Do not use proprietary/trademarked names in the title
  • Do not use acronyms in the title unless they are universally recognized and accepted

THE TITLE PAGE of your submission must be included as part of your main text document (not as a separate file) and must include the following items:

  • The complete title of the article;
  • All contributing authors full names, complete affiliation, as well as their email addresses and phone numbers
  • A brief running title of no more than 45 characters, including spaces;
  • Denotation of the corresponding author and his/her complete contact information including mailing address and email address;
  • Three (3) to six (6) manuscript keywords/search terms.**

**Manuscript Keywords (search terms)

On the title page of the manuscript, include a minimum of three (3), maximum of six (6), search terms that will aid in the discoverability of the article in indexing services and search engines. These terms may or may not be different from the terms you selected for the peer review process and areas of expertise. You will be asked to retype these search terms in the submission form when uploading your manuscript. These keywords will be included in the published article.


Authorship Confirmation Statement  (also see the section labeled ""DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT AUTHORSHIP" in our Policies section.)

On a separate page within the manuscript file, following the title page, include a list detailing each listed authors’ contributions to and responsibilities for the manuscript. This text should also contain a statement by the corresponding author that all coauthors have reviewed and approved of the manuscript prior to submission.


On a separate page within the manuscript file, following the Authorship Confirmation Statement page, include any financial conflicts of interest, actual or potential, for each listed author on the submission. If no conflicts exist, the author(s) must state, “No competing financial interests exist.” Manuscripts submitted without Author Disclosure Statements will be un-submitted so that a statement may be added.
†† Visit the ICJME website for more information about disclosure requirements and guidelines.

Abstract Requirements

  • An abstract must be in Word and included in the main text file, after the title page, Author Confirmation Statement, and Author Disclosure Statements.
  • The abstract should be structured.  (Background, Materials & Methods, Results, and Conclusions sections identified).
  • The abstract should briefly summarize the background and rationale of the study, and clearly summarize the results and conclusions of the work.
  • References are not permitted in the abstract.
  • Do not use proprietary or trade names in the abstract, and all abbreviations should be defined.
  • See Word Limits section for submission type and corresponding abstract word limits.

Main Text File
After preparing the title page, abstract, Authorship Confirmation, and Author Disclosure Statements, assemble the remainder of the text following this sequence:

  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Appendices (if applicable)
  • Supplemental Information (if applicable); NOTE: Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.)

The Introduction should clearly state the premise on which the research is being reported throughout in the rest of the manuscript and should be concise and supported by appropriately cited published literature to present a clear hypothesis and platform for the rest of the manuscript.  Background material should be brief and relevant to the research described. Lengthy reviews of the literature in submissions labeled as “Original” should be avoided.

The Methods and Materials section should include a declaration of adherence to Institutional Review Board protocols in the beginning of this section of the manuscript. The sources of all materials and the methods applied to all experimentation that are being presented in the manuscript must be provided in adequate detail as to ensure that all of the studies are fully reproducible.  Novel experimental procedures should be described in detail. Describe any differences between published methods and methods actually used. Published procedures should cite the literature for the original and any published modifications thereof, unless it would benefit the reader to provide a full detailed explanation.  
Safety. Authors must state any unexpected, new, and/or significant hazards or risks associated with the reported work. Precautions for handling dangerous or controlled materials (e.g., radioactive materials) or for executing hazardous procedures must be included.  A high standard of chemical characterization, to confirm the identity and purity of the compounds under study is expected.  For small organic molecules, conventional methods apply, including nuclear magnetic resonance data and elemental analyses, and/or high resolution mass spectrometry of all new small molecules. The numerical results for all elemental analyses must be reported.  For medium-sized or larger peptides, evidence for homogeneity by separation methods of adequate resolving power and by amino acid analysis is normally required; results of mass spectrometry techniques in tandem are useful to include.  

Biological Data. Manuscripts generally will contain biological data. Biological test methods must be appropriately cited and/or sufficiently described to promote reproducibility. Statistical limits (statistical significance) are required for all biological data. Doses and concentrations should be expressed as molar quantities (e.g., mol/kg, nM).  System International (SI) units should be used throughout. Chemical and biological nomenclature should conform to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. A statement describing the statistical analyses that were used to analyze the data should be provided at the end of this section. Radiopharmaceutical nomenclature should also follow the guidance provided in Coenen HH, Gee, AD, Adams, M, et al. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018;8(1):70-72.

Results. The results should be presented concisely and in a logical progression to communicate clearly to the reader those results obtained from the experiments that were described in Methods and Materials along with their statistical importance and value where relevant.  Referring to the tables and figures of data should be performed so as to facilitate ease of understanding for the reader. The same data should not be presented in more than one figure or in both a figure and a table in the manuscript. In some cases it is appropriate to validate the significance of processed data (e.g., a graph), by including the underlying raw data (e.g., a gel or biodistribution).

Discussion. The discussion section should be used to discuss and interpret the meaning of the results and their relevance to prior results in the literature such as to be able to draw conclusions and to put the results into context where they can be applied by other researchers.  

Conclusions. The conclusion section should be used in brief to place the results and discussion into their full value and meaning with minimal speculation or hyperbole. Advances should be clearly stated as such and what their impact will carry forward, while negative results should also be presented here as those also provide value to researchers.

Acknowledgments. This section is to be used to credit collaborations or record specific research agreements, sources of research funds, contributors that are not authors, etc. This section must be listed separately at the end of the main body of text ahead of the Reference section.


Footnotes are acceptable but should be used sparingly and only when essential.  Footnotes to text should be typed single spaced at the bottom of the corresponding page.


  • Prepare each figure as an individual .TIFF or .EPS file
  • Do NOT submit figures in Word, PowerPoint, PDF, Bitmap, .JPEG, or Excel
  • .Line illustrations must be submitted at 900 DPI.
  • Halftones and color should be submitted at a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • Color art must be saved as CMYK - not RGB. (NOTE: If RGB files are submitted, the files will be converted to CYMK and some color variation will occur.)
  • Black and white art must be submitted as grayscale – not RGB.
  • Name all figure files in English and use only alphanumeric characters.  Do not use symbols, dots, lines, or dashes.
  • Figure file names should be formatted with first author’s last name and the figure number. (Ex:  SmithFigure1)
  • Upload individual figure files under the “Figure” file designation.

Additional Information on Converting Figure Files

Converting Word or Excel files: The best and easiest way to convert Word or Excel files into a format which is suitable for print is to scan them using the below guidelines:

  • All files should be scanned at 100% size
  • At least 300 dpi
  • Final color mode: CMYK
  • Save file as: .tif, .tiff, or .eps

For more direction on how to convert a Power Point slide to acceptable format go to:


See Journal Fees section below.


  • All tables should be uploaded in a single Word (.doc or .docx) file.
  • Each table within the file should start on its own page.
  • Include a table number and a title for each supplied table.
  • The Table file should be separate from the main manuscript text file.
  • Do not embed tables within the text.
  • Use Arabic numerals to number tables.
  • Do not repeat information that is given in the text, and do not make a table for data that can be given in the text in one or two sentences.
  • Define all acronyms used within the body of the table in table footnotes.
  • All other types of table footnotes should be designated using superscript letters, not symbols.
  • Name all table files in English and use only alphanumeric characters.  Do not use symbols, dots, lines, or dashes.
  • Table file name should be formatted with first author’s last name and the word, “Table.” (Ex:  SmithTables)
  • Upload all tables in one continuous file under the “Table” file designation.

Supplementary Information

When appropriate, we encourage the judicious use of online-only supplementary information (SI). All information/data in the SI should be referred to in the article text, including reference to specific tables and figures in the SI. Upload supplementary tables, figures, and legends as separate files, either as “supplementary file” or “supplementary file for review only.” The manuscript should be written so that the paper which appears in the printed journal contains all data which are key to the conclusions and important for the reader to have direct access to when reading the paper. Other supporting data and text are appropriate for the supplementary section.

Order of Files During Submission

Upload manuscript files to our system in the following order:

  • Cover Letter
  • Manuscript/Main text file (including the Abstract, Authorship Confirmation Statement, Author Disclosure Statements, and References, as well as any Appendices, if applicable)
  • Tables
  • Figure Legends (prepared in a separate Word file)
  • Figures
  • Supplementary files

Note:  There is a total limit of 200 MB per submission.


For Users of EndNote

Download the output style for Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals.
[NOTE:  The publisher of Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals does not provide technical support for EndNote. If you have questions, click on the Support tab on EndNote’s website for assistance.]

Reference List Preparation

Prepare a numbered (not alphabetical) reference list, in the order of citation within text and double spaced, at the end of the text of the manuscript (do not upload the reference list as a separate file).  See Formatting Examples below.

If more than three authors are listed on an article, list the first three authors then use et al. (not italic) after the third author’s name. Abbreviations of journal titles in reference section should follow the style of MEDLINE.   

When data from an unpublished source are given, supply complete information that will permit verification of the data (e.g., researcher’s name and location). If work is in press, give journal in which it is to be published or publisher.  It is best to avoid citing unpublished source or in press work whenever possible, but in the case of in press citations, be prepared to provide a copy of that material to the reviewers.

Use of a citation that is from a conference proceeding that is just an abstract or even an extended abstract is not acceptable.


Journal Article:
de Camargo MR, Gorgulho CM, Rodrigues CP, et al.  Low concentration of 5-fluorouracil increases the effectiveness of tumor RNA to activate murine dendritic cells.  Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017;32:302-308.

Oldham RK, Dillman RO. Principles of Cancer Biotherapy. New York,  NY:  Springer; 2009.

Chapter in a Book:
Grillo-Lopez AJ.  Regulatory process for approval of biologicals for cancer therapy.  In:  Oldham RK, Dillman RO eds.  Priciples of Cancer Biotherapy.  New York, NY: Springer; 2009;613-630.

Website: Please follow this structure for website references, including capitalization and punctuation:
List author (if available) and/or page name/title. Website article title. Provide website URL. Include last accessed date.

Conference Proceedings:  Please follow this structure for Conference Proceeding references, including capitalization and punctuation:
List all Authors’ (or) Editors’ names (last name first, followed by first and middle initials). Conference title. Date of conference. Location of conference. City of publisher: Publisher; Year of publication. Complete number of pages in proceedings book.

Preprint:  Preprints may be cited in same manner as a journal article.  Note: Discretion is recommended as preprints are by definition not peer-reviewed.

In-Text Citations

Cite all references appearing in the reference list in numerical order, as superscripted numbers (no parentheses) and outside of sentence punctuation.  All citations in text must have a corresponding reference in the reference list, and all supplied references must be cited in text.


If after peer review, you are invited to submit a revision, do NOT create a new submission. Detailed instructions for submitting revised manuscripts are provided in an email that is sent to the corresponding author along with the reviewers’ comments.  Revised submissions routinely will undergo further review by the same reviewers who assessed the original submission, members of the editorial board, and/or the editor(s). Contact the Editorial Office immediately if the deadline for your revised submission has expired.  Do not create a new submission for an already-submitted paper.

Please note that an invitation to submit a revision does not guarantee acceptance.  Revised manuscripts are subject to peer review.


Upon acceptance of any manuscript, all authors will receive an email with detailed instructions and a unique, author-specific link to access and complete our online Copyright Agreement form. It is critical to ensure the accuracy of ALL authors’ email addresses when uploading submissions to Manuscript Central to ensure the proper delivery of all email communications. FAILURE BY ALL AUTHORS TO SUBMIT THIS FORM WILL RESULT IN A DELAY OF PUBLICATION. The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with coauthors to ensure they have completed the online copyright form. Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form with a statement explaining the reason for not releasing the copyright. Copyright forms may also be completed by logging in to the system using an author’s credentials. After logging on, click on Author Center and complete the forms located under “Manuscripts I Have Coauthored.”

Published manuscripts become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., unless alternate arrangements are made prior to publication, including CC-BY licensing (see below). By submitting a manuscript to the Journal, the author(s) agree(s) to each of the above conditions. In addition, the author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership he/she (they) may have in such manuscript to the Journal.


Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals is a subscription-based peer-reviewed journal with Open Access options. Creative Commons CC-BY and CC-BY-NC licensing is available for all articles published open access for a standard Article Processing Charge (APC) of $3,200.00 USD. Please contact our Open Access Manager  to order open access for your article. For more information about open access publishing, please visit our Liebert Open Access website.


When reusing copyrighted material such as figures, tables, or any excerpted work, the author(s) must obtain permission from the original publisher and submit it concurrently with the manuscript. Written permission must be obtained from the copyright holder/publisher of the material concerned. The publication from which the material is taken must be listed in the reference list. Finally, a footnote to a reprinted table or the legend of a reprinted figure should read, “Reprinted with permission from Jones et al." and list the corresponding superscripted reference number (i.e.: “Reprinted with permission from Jones et al.27”). All permissions must be supplied at the time of submission.  Authors are responsible for any fees that may be incurred by securing permission to reproduce or adapt material from other published sources.


All accepted manuscripts will go through copyediting, typesetting, figure sizing and placement, author proofing, corrections, revisions (from corrected proofs), online-ahead-of-print release, and lastly, final issue assignment. Depending on the length and complexity of any accepted submission, these steps typically take 3-6 weeks from acceptance, provided all copyright forms have been successfully submitted to the publisher.


Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as designated in Manuscript Central when the manuscript was submitted to Manuscript Central. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to share the page proofs with co-authors and to coordinate all authors’ corrections into one proof. The Publisher will not accept corrections from multiple authors.


The corresponding author is responsible for returning corrections to page proofs, preferably within 72 hours of receipt. If the corresponding author does not respond within that time, the manuscript may be delayed in the publication schedule, or published as is, at the discretion of the Editor and Publisher. If the corresponding author expects to be unavailable during the time the manuscript is in production, the publisher should be provided with an alternate contact.
Only corrections directly related to errors in typesetting will be allowed. Other changes related to scientific content are generally not permitted at this stage and would require the approval of the Editor.


Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany the proofs, and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the publisher as reprints ordered after the issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.



Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals follows the protocols and best practices for peer review set forth in the guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Journal Medical Editors (ICJME).  You may also refer to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, 10e, for guidance on style requirements and standards.


Editors and reviewers must maintain strict confidentiality of manuscripts during the peer-review process. Sharing a manuscript in whole or in part, outside the scope of what is necessary for assessment, is impermissible prior to the manuscript’s official publication date.


Authors must honor any reasonable request for materials, methods, or data necessary to reproduce or validate the research findings during peer review, unless it violates the privacy or confidentiality of human research subjects.


The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors will recuse themselves from participating in the review process of any manuscript in which there is a potential or actual competing interest.  These papers will by anonymously managed by another member of the editorial board.


Papers reporting human experimentation will be reviewed in accordance with the precepts established by the Declaration of Helsinki (2013).

Papers containing studies performed on human subjects must include a statement that the investigations were performed after approval by a local Human Investigations Committee or Institutional Review Board, and after obtaining informed consent from a patient (or other responsible individuals).  Copies of such documentation must be submitted to the journal upon submission in order for the paper to go through proper peer review. It is required that the author(s) retain and archive all relevant forms, releases, statements, and consents.

Patient anonymity is paramount and must be protected as required by law. In most cases, a general description of the patient(s) is sufficient insofar as meaning is not lost.  Nonessential data (age, sex, occupation, etc.) should not be included in a manuscript unless it is clinically or epidemiologically relevant or important to the manuscript.

When reporting research involving human data, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed have been assessed by the responsible review committee (institutional and national), or if no formal ethics committee is available, were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Approval by a responsible review committee does not preclude editors from forming their own judgment whether the conduct of the research was appropriate.
A sentence declaring adherence to Institutional Review Board protocols should be included in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.  If the study is judged exempt from approval from an Institutional Review Board, a statement from the committee is required indicating a waiver has been issued. Informed consent by participants should always be secured. If securing consent is not possible, an institutional review board must decide if it is ethically acceptable to submit the work to the journal for peer review and possible publication. This information should be outlined in the cover letter accompanying the submission.
Patient consent includes an opportunity for the patient(s) to read the manuscript prior to submission or waive the right to do so.

The patient confidentiality and consent requirements contained herein are applicable to any text, photograph, image, video, or any other media submitted to Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals.  


Authors must clearly state in the text that the experiments were carried out in compliance with the relevant local institutional reviewed animal use regulations and/or national laws relating to the conduct of animal experimentation, or, where such laws do not exist, that the studies were performed in accordance with an internationally recognized code of practice.  Authors should clearly state source(s) and numbers of animals being used in all experiments in their manuscript.



All authors are encouraged to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier. Please visit the ORCID website for more information, or to register.

Authorship Limit

There is a limit of 35 authors permitted on a single submission, but in cases where there are 20 or more co-authors, Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals recommends that a collective group or consortium name is provided and the individual authors and their affiliations listed in the Acknowledgements.

Authorship should be determined at the time of submission. Ensure the author listing is complete and all names are spelled correctly.  As determined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors  (ICJME) , authorship is defined*** using the following criteria:

1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

***Consult the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for differing qualifications for authors vs. contributors.

Corresponding Author

Note:  The submission system only permits one author to be classified as the corresponding author. This designation should be determined at the time of submission. The named individual will be responsible for receiving all communications regarding the submission and will be directed only to the corresponding author.  The corresponding author designated in Manuscript Central will be responsible for communicating to all other coauthors.  The journal editorial office or the publisher will only provide information to the designated corresponding author.  (The only exception is with regard to copyright forms. If a submission is accepted, each author will receive a unique link to their individualized copyright form sent to them via email).

If a submission requires two corresponding authors to be listed, it should be noted on the title page of the manuscript.  It is preferred to list no more than two corresponding authors.

Acknowledgment of Non-Qualifying Contributors

Contributors who do not meet all for of the criteria for authorship as defined by the ICMJE should not be listed as authors, but they should be recognized in the Acknowledgments section.  Some (not all) examples of activities that alone (without other contributions) do not qualify a contributor for authorship are:

  • acquisition of funding or provision materials;
  • general supervision of a research group or general administrative support
  • writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading

Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under the single heading, Acknowledgments.

Submitting Author/Agent:

It is incumbent upon the submitting author/agent to ensure the inclusion and accuracy of all contributing authors’ names and affiliations upon original submission of the paper. Once a paper is accepted for publication, changes in authorship – including the page proof stage – are generally not permitted.  (See the Changes in Authorship section below.)

Variations of Authorship

It is permissible to list two authors as co-first authors or as equal contributors.  Include an asterisk (*) next to the authors’ names who are considered as first authors.  Include a corresponding footnote, using the asterisk, on the title page that reads, “These authors contributed equally to this work and are considered to be co-first authors.”

Working Groups or Teams

may be listed in the manuscript byline, but the entire listing of names and their affiliations should be included in the acknowledgment section of the manuscript.  Do not list the names in a footnote on the title page.  Following this method ensures that all participants of Working Groups or Teams will appear correctly in Medline and other indexing databases.


Changes in authorship after acceptance are generally discouraged, but the editorial leadership recognizes that in certain circumstances, it is required. The journal’s policy is as follows:

1. A request to alter authorship must be made in writing from the corresponding author to the Editor-in-Chief, with a detailed explanation for the request, and the names and affiliations of the authors requiring addition and/or deletion.

2. Authorship may be altered after acceptance of a paper with the written approval of all authors named on the manuscript, as well as the individual(s) being added and/or deleted. The Publisher can provide a form for this, if needed.
3. Upon receipt of the request and all written approvals of all involved parties, the Editor-in-Chief will consider the request, render a decision, and notify the corresponding author.
4. There is a one-year post-publication statute of limitation on requests for alterations in authorship.

***Important Note about Author Listing***

It is incumbent upon the submitting author to ensure the accuracy and inclusion of all contributing authors’ names and affiliations upon original submission of the paper. All authors’ names must be entered into the Journal’s submission site.


1. Competing Interests. A competing interest exists when an individual (or the individual’s institution) has financial or personal relationships that may inappropriately influence his actions. These competing interests may be potential or actual, financial or other.
2. Personal Financial Interests. Stocks or shares in a company that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; consulting fees or other remuneration from an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; patents or patent applications that are owned by or licensed to companies/institutions that may gain or lose value from publication of the article.
3. Funding. Research support by organizations that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article. This support includes salary, equipment, supplies, honoraria, reimbursement or prepayment for attending symposia, and other expenses.
4. Employment. Recent (within the past 5 years), current, or anticipated employment by an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article.
5. Other Competing Interests. Any personal relationship which may inappropriately affect the integrity of the research reported (by an author) or the objectivity of the review of the manuscript (by a reviewer or Editor), for example, competition between investigators, previous disagreements between investigators, or bias in professional judgment.


  • There are no submission fees to the Journal.
  • There no page charges for the Journal.
  • The Journal will publish color photographs, with a subsidy from the author. Costs are dependent upon the number of figures within a paper.  For details, contact our Author Benefits Coordinator. 
  • Open Access and Creative Commons licensing options are available. Contact our Open Access Manager for more information.
  • For pricing and purchasing reprints, contact our Reprints Manager


Upon submission of a manuscript, you will have an opportunity to enter funding/grant information. If funding information is entered correctly, the publisher will deposit the funding acknowledgements from the article as part of the standard metadata. The entered information should include funder names, funder IDs (if available), and associated grant numbers. See the CrossRef Funder Registry or a listing of more than 13,000 international funding agencies.


Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals is fully NIH-, HHMI-, RUCK, and Wellcome Trust-compliant.


Our open access publishing solutions allow you to comply with the open access policies of your institution, government, and funding body. If you are employed or funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH), the Wellcome Trust, Research Councils UK (RCUK) or Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), you can find more information below:

  • HHMI and NIH Public Access Policy – In order to assist our authors who have NIH funding to comply with this policy, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers will deposit the final paginated version of the published article to PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the authors after a 12-month embargo period. Authors need not take any action. This service is provided free of charge. Authors who wish to remove the 12-month embargo period are encouraged to consider publishing with Open Option.
  • Wellcome Trust Policy – To easily comply, you can choose to have your article published Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. The publication charge will be covered by the Wellcome Trust.
  • Research Councils UK (RUCK) – To easily comply, you can choose to have your article published Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. The publication charge will be covered by the RUCK.


In the event an error is discovered after publication of an article, the corresponding author should submit the correction in writing to the editorial office for consideration. Changes in author affiliations or contact details due to relocation are not permitted after publication.

Corrections to meeting abstracts will be made only to the online version.  The Journal does not issue formal correction statements for corrections to meeting abstracts, regardless of the nature of the correction.


Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals is fully committed to deterring plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. All manuscripts will be processed through plagiarism detection software prior to acceptance for similarity to previously published material.  Plagiarized manuscripts will be rejected immediately. While a manuscript submission may contain some redundancy in language and content compared to work previously published by authors, self-plagiarism can infringe upon a publisher’s copyright. To avoid plagiarism, be sure to cite all published works.


Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Scientific Misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Authorship Disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist’s contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.
  • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research:
    Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.
  • Conflict of Interest:  Nondisclosure of any conflicts, direct or indirect, to the Journal which prevents you from being unbiased constitutes misconduct.
  • Deliberate misrepresentation: of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance the research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another’s work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Simultaneous Submission: Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.


Scientific misconduct includes but is not limited to data fabrication; data falsification including deceptive manipulation of data and images; and plagiarism.  While each of these practices is problematic, they are not equivalent. If an instance of suspected misconduct in submitted or published work is presented to the editorial leadership and/or publisher of Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, the journal will follow the protocols set forth by the Committee of Publication Ethics.  Pending the results of this procedure, the editor(s) may choose to publish an Expression of Concern.  If such procedures involve an investigation with/by the authors’ institution(s), the editors will seek to discover the results of that investigation and notify the readership of the journal of said findings.  If the investigation(s) prove(s) scientific misconduct, the journal will publish an official retraction of the article(s).   There may be circumstances in which no misconduct is proven, but an exchange of letters to the editor may be published to highlight matters of debate to the journal’s readership.


The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into an allegation.  As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with associate editors and/or members of the editorial board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or if the allegation is against an editor, an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will arrive at a conclusion as to whether there is enough reasonable evidence that the possibility of misconduct occurred.

When allegations concern authors, the peer review and publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. The investigation will be taken to completion even if the authors withdraw their paper.  In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be replaced in the review process while the matter is investigated.

Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal, and reported to their institution.

If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record.  If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal.

All allegations will be kept confidential.


Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., deposits and archives all publications in Portico for long-term digital preservation. Your article will be easily searchable on Google, Google Scholar, and other search engines.


Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals is owned and published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, NY 10801;  Tel:  914-740-2100; EmailWebsite.

Our dynamic Author Benefits Program provides you with end-to-end benefits that ensure your hard work pays off and your published manuscript gets the attention it deserves not just upon publication, but permanently.

Liebert Open Access

Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) option

Explore Liebert Open Access

Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?

The Liebert Open Access option enables authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.

The benefits of Liebert Open Access include:

  • High visibility; open access articles are freely available online upon publication
  • You retain copyright with the open access license allowing broad dissemination of your research
  • You can freely share your article in repositories and research networks without restrictions
  • Easy compliance with open access mandates
  • Rigorous editorial and peer-review
  • Targeted email announcement featuring a direct link to article

Identification and Marketing

Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC alerts, and in marketing announcements. Open access articles are highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.

Copyright and Licensing

If you choose to publish with open access, you will retain copyright of your article and a Creative Commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

At this time we allow authors to choose between the CC-BY or CC-BY-NonCommercial license. A limited number of journals offer NonCommercial licenses exclusively.

Ordering Open Access

Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Access. If you would like more information about Liebert Open Access or would like to order open access, please email

Publishing open access includes an article publication charge (APC) and authors are asked to fill out a short open access order form.  You can pay by credit card or receive an invoice to be returned with payment or via bank transfer. Please remember that traditional subscription journals can carry mandatory or optional author fees. The Liebert Open Access APC does not cover or replace existing publication or author fees.

Publishing biomedical or biotechnology research?

Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. For details, please visit the information for authors on the journal website.

 *Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.


Browse journals in the Liebert Open Access portfolio:

NIH Public Access Policy: In order to assist our authors who have NIH funding to comply with this policy, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers will deposit the final accepted paper (after copy-editing and proofreading) to PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the authors. Authors need not take any action. The manuscript's public access posting on PMC will occur 12 months after final publication. This service is provided free of charge. Please note that authors may not deposit manuscripts directly to PMC or other sites without permission from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Publishing in Subscription Journals

By signing the copyright transfer statement, authors still retain a set of rights that allow for self-archiving.

Authors may archive their preprint manuscripts (version prior to peer review) at any time without restrictions. Authors may archive their postprint manuscripts (accepted version after peer review) in institutional repositories, preprint servers, and research networks after a 12 month embargo. The 12 month embargo period begins when the article is published online. Postprints must not be used for commercial purposes and acknowledgement must be given to the final publication, and publisher, by inserting the DOI number of the article in the following sentence: “Final publication is available from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers[insert DOI]”. Authors may archive on their personal website without an embargo provided their manuscript is updated with an acknowledgement to the publisher copyright and final published version.

The final published article (version of record) can never be archived in a repository, preprint server, or research network.


Publishing Open Access

Authors that wish to easily comply with funder or institutional open access mandates should consider publishing open access. Liebert Open Access option allows authors to make their research freely available online without restrictions. Additionally, Liebert Open Access option allows authors to retain copyright, archive and share the final published version of their article without restrictions. To publish open access please email or visit Liebert Open Access for more information.

The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them.