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Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that describes advances in our understanding of asthma, allergic, immunologic, and respiratory diseases of children. The Journal publishes original translational, clinical, epidemiologic, public health, and quality improvement research. Periodic themed issues will provide state of the art reviews on rapidly changing and/or under-recognized areas in the field. Being grounded in the past and looking to the future, the Journal facilitates advances in the fields of pediatric allergy, immunology, and pulmonology.


Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract. Prior abstract publications should be described in the form of a footnote to the title. Published manuscripts become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. By submitting a manuscript to the Journal, the author(s) agree(s) to each of the above conditions. In addition, the author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership he/she (they) may have in such manuscript to the Journal.

Upon acceptance of any manuscript, all authors will receive a follow-up email with instructions on how to complete our online Copyright Agreement form. It is critical to ensure the accuracy of ALL authors' email addresses when uploading submissions to Manuscript Central to ensure the proper delivery of all email communications.


The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with coauthors to make sure they have completed the online copyright form. Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement of the reason for not releasing the copyright.


If the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has provided financial support for the research that is reported in the article, this should be indicated on the copyright form. Please provide the grant number and NIH contact name on the title page of the manuscript.



Authors are encouraged to suggest names of appropriate reviewers, and may also request that a particular individual not serve in that capacity. Final decision about peer review assignments rests with the editors.

All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier. Please visit the ORCID website for more information, or to register.

All new manuscripts must be submitted online at:


1. Original Articles are reports of original research not previously reported elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract of no more than 450 words. Prior abstract presentations should be described in a footnote to the title.

The article should have the following format: Title page, abstract, abbreviation list, body of paper, references, figure legends, tables. Each figure should be prepared as a separate digital file and uploaded separately.

Title Page

Each manuscript must have a title page as a separate file to facilitate double blind peer review. The title page document should include the following:

  • full article title;
  • full first and last names, highest academic degrees, e-mail addresses, and institutional affiliations for all authors; designated corresponding author e-mail address
  • the institution at which the work was performed;
  • the source of financial support; this information must be in the form of a sentence with the name of the funding agency written out in full;
  • disclosure information.


As part of the title page document include a section entitled “Author Disclosure Statement.” Authors must disclose personal and financial support or commercial associations that might create a conflict of interest in connection with submitted manuscripts. This statement should include appropriate information for EACH author, thereby representing that competing financial interests of all authors have been appropriately disclosed according to the policy of the Journal. It is important that all conflicts of interest, whether they are actual or potential, be disclosed. This information will remain confidential while the paper is being reviewed and will not influence the editorial decision, but the information will appear in all published articles. Please see the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at for further guidance. If no conflicts exist, a statement to that effect must be included for each author.


The body of the paper should be a separate file and should include the abstract, abbreviations, text, references, and figure legends.

Your manuscript must be submitted in grammatically correct English. If you are not a native English speaker, we strongly recommend that you have your manuscript professionally edited before submission. You can use the professional English language editing service noted on the first screen in your author center or any other service available to you. Please note that using an editing service does not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript for publication.


Provide a structured abstract not to exceed 300 words. Structured abstracts should consist of four sections, labeled as Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The sections should briefly describe, respectively, the problem being addressed in the study, how the study was performed (including numbers of patients), the significant results, and what the authors conclude from the results. For all clinical trials, the trial registry name and registration number must be stated as its own paragraph at the end of the Abstract after the Conclusions.


To facilitate reader comprehension, abbreviations should be used sparingly if at all, and used only to replace a long or cumbersome word (or phrase) that appears a great many times in a manuscript.1,2 On a separate page in your manuscript, please provide an alphabetical list of all abbreviations used in the paper, followed by their full definitions. Each abbreviation should be expanded at first mention in the text and noted parenthetically after expansion.


Subheads should include Introduction, Methods and Materials, Results, and Discussion.

Articles that are reports of results from randomized controlled trials should be registered. Authors must follow the CONSORT statement checklist ( checklist and provide a CONSORT diagram as Figure 1 in their papers. A tool for generating this diagram is available at

The Materials and Methods section should generally include (1) Patients; (2) Study Design; (3) Study Drugs/Interventions; (4) Study End Points (Efficacy End Points, Safety End Points); and (5) Statistical Analysis. Sufficient detail and references about assessment instruments should be given such that a scientist could evaluate or repeat your work. Make sure that methods are

provided for each of the end points reported.3 Assurance of human subjects protection including Institutional Review Board approval should be briefly stated.

The Results section provides the results for all end points and measures stated in the materials and methods. The text of the results section gives meaning to the data, but without “excuses.4

The Discussion section is to discuss how the results answer and support the research question posed in the introduction and to compare and contrast the results with other studies in the field. The discussion section is not a general review of the literature nor is it a call for speculation not supported by the data. Claims about being the “first” should be avoided in most circumstances. Limitations of the findings should be carefully stated. Be very careful to avoid over-interpreting your data. Conclusions should be based on and supported by the research findings.

2. Short Communications are intended for the presentation of brief observations that do not warrant a full-length text, but also are not preliminary results. Short Communications are generally under 1500 words in length. Include a structured abstract. The body of the text should include the following sections: 1) Introduction which establishes why the specific aim is important and clearly states the specific aim. 2) Methods clearly describe what was done and the population you recruited from (recruitment, eligibility, exclusion criteria). Methods should also describe adherence to ethics board/IRB review. 3) Results describes the sample studied and what was found. 4) Discussion describes how your results address your specific aim and how this fits with existing knowledge. Limitations of methods should be acknowledged. Avoid tangential discussion of issues not directly tested by your study and not related to your specific aim.

3. Reviews and Perspectives: May be solicited by the Editor(s) or submitted independently. Reviews are summaries of developments in a specific area within the field of pediatric asthma, allergy and/or immunology. Perspectives are more representative of an expert opinion about an area of the field or a direction of research. Both are subject to peer review.

4. Case Reports will be limited to one Featured Case per issue. The editor-in-chief will invite Expert Commentary to accompany the case. Authors are invited to submit well written interesting and challenging clinical cases to be considered for Featured Case.

The cases should illustrate an uncommon presentation, uncommon disease, diagnostic challenge, and/or management controversy. The case and discussion should provide substantial educational value to the reader.

Cases are limited to 1500 words or less and no more than 2 tables and 3 figures. The presentation should be concise and focused. The following basic elements should be contained:

  • Introduction: Briefly state the issue that this case raises
  • Case presentation: contains the relevant history, physical examination, and diagnostic studies. Be sure to include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives. Information presented should relate to and inform the differential diagnosis.
  • Discuss the relevant differential diagnoses and how the final diagnosis was determined.
  • Briefly discuss the treatment provided and clinical outcome.
  • Protection of patient privacy: Personally identifying information should be deleted from any diagnostic images provided. Patient photographs that are potentially identifiable should include a release for publication signed by the patient and/or legal guardian.
  • Discussion: Limit to 400 words or less. Briefly summarize key “take-home” points of the case.

Please suggest 2 or 3 possible expert discussants in your submission cover letter.

5.  “My Corner” Submissions:

My Corner” submissions are opinion articles that present the author's point of view on the strengths and weaknesses of a particular hypothesis, theory, or conjecture. These submissions should be backed by evidence and should not contain unpublished or original data.    Clinicians, researchers and scientists are welcome to submit commentaries for consideration.

  • 1,500 word limit
  • Maximum of 5 references
  • 1-2 figures, images or tables

Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research: Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research*

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.


Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material. They must be numbered and cited in consecutive order in the text, and each must have a succinct title, and (where appropriate) a legend describing abbreviations and footnotes at the bottom of the table.

Each table with its title should be in a separate file. Tables should be submitted as Word files. Use Arabic numerals to number tables. Remember, each table must stand alone, i.e.,contain all necessary information in the caption, and the table itself must be understood independently of the text.

Please follow these guidelines for submitting figures:

  • Each figure should be in a separate file.
  • Do NOT embed figure or table files into the manuscript file.
  • Line illustrations should be submitted with a high resolution.
  • Halftones and color should be submitted at a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF or EPS files are preferred.
  • Color art must be saved as CYMK—not RGB.
  • Please name your figure files with the word "Figure" followed by the figure number, with no spaces in between (i.e., Figure2)
  • A list of figure legends should be supplied as a separate file under the file category entitled "Figure Legends."
  • NOTE:  Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.)


Please upload individual files of all manuscript material—do NOT upload a single PDF file containing all text, figure, and table files of your article. Once all individual files are uploaded on to Manuscript Central, the system will automatically create a single PDF proof for you and the peer-review process.


Generally 2500 words or fewer is appropriate for an original article, and 3000 words or fewer is appropriate for a review or perspective. Although the editors don't wish to consider these word limits to be rigid guidelines, in most circumstances brevity and focus will improve an article.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of citations. In text, references must be given as superscript numerals, numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text. The full citations must be listed in numerical order at the end of the text. References should be presented in the following style: Journal papers: Lowry SF, Smith JC, Brennan MF. Zinc and copper replacement during total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 1853–60. Books: Underwood EJ. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, 4th ed. New York: Academic Press, 1977, pp 496–8. Parts of books: Johnson JK, Allergy. In: EJ Underwood, ed. Trace elements in human nutrition, 4th ed. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

Abbreviations of journal titles should follow Medline.


Following the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; available at, Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology defines “author” as a person who has participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for all portions of the content. Specifically, an author is a person who:

  1. Has made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data
  2. Has drafted the submitted article or revised it critically for important intellectual content
  3. Has provided final approval of the version to be published.

Any person who does not meet all three of the listed criteria does not qualify as an author and should not be designated as an author.

In accordance with the policies of ghost authorship adopted by World Association of Medical Editors (available at authors must acknowledge all persons who have made substantial contributions to writing a manuscript.


Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology will not consider manuscripts that have been supported by tobacco companies.


The author(s) must obtain permission to reproduce figures, tables, and text from previously published material. Written permission must be obtained from the original copyright holder (generally the publisher, not the author or editor) of the journal or book concerned. An appropriate credit line should be included in the figure legend or table footnote, and full publication information should be included in the reference list. Written permission must be obtained from the author of any unpublished material cited and should accompany the manuscript.


Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany page proofs, and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after an issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.


The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into an allegation. As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with associate editors and/or members of the editorial board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or if the allegation is against an editor, an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will arrive at a conclusion as to whether there is enough reasonable evidence that the possibility of misconduct occurred.

When allegations concern authors, the peer review and publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. The investigation will be taken to completion even if the authors withdraw their paper. In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be replaced in the review process while the matter is investigated.

Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal, and reported to their institution.

If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record. If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal.

All allegations will be kept confidential.


Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers generally follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Scientific Misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Authorship Disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist's contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.
  • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.
  • Conflict of Interest: Nondisclosure of any conflicts, direct or indirect, to the Journal which prevents you from being unbiased constitutes misconduct.
  • Deliberate misrepresentation: of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance the research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another's work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Simultaneous Submission: Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.


Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology is published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215. Telephone: (914) 740-2100; Fax:

(914) 740-2108.; E-mail:; Website:


*This portion of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology’s Instructions for Authors has been quoted directly from the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals website. For more information, visit



1Tobin MJ. Compliance (COMmunicate PLease wIth Less Abbreviations, Noun Clusters, and Exclusiveness). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15;166(12 Pt 1):1534–6.

2Farber HJ. On the abuse of acronyms. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15;166(12 Pt 1):1607–8.


3Foote MA. Materials and Methods: A Recipe for Success. CHEST 2008; 133;291–293.

4Foote MA. The Proof of the Pudding: How to Report Results and Write a Good Discussion. CHEST 2009; 135:866–868.

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