Back to Top

For Authors

Journal Information 

  • Manuscript Submission Site: 
  • Editorial Office Contact: 
  • Support Contact: 
  • Journal Model: Hybrid (Open Access Option)
  • Masking: Single Masked (aka "Single Blind") Reviewers know the author's identity, author's do not know the reviewers' identities.
  • File formatting requirement stage: Upon submission
  • Instant Online Option (immediate publication of accepted version): No 
  • Submission Fee: None 
  • Average time to initial decision: 35 days

About the Journal 

Autism in Adulthood is published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers, headquartered in New Rochelle, New York. The founding Editor-in-Chief is Christina Nicolaidis, MD, MPH. The Journal is managed by an academic chief editor, associate editors, and an international editorial board comprised of leading researchers, autistic community leaders, and practitioners focused on autism in adulthood. 

In addition to the traditional, scientific peer-review procedure, all manuscripts submitted to Autism in Adulthood will be reviewed by at least one autistic adult as part of our commitment to inclusion. While in some cases, autistic scientists or scholars may fill both roles, many autistic reviews will be conducted by people outside of academia. Our autistic reviewers greatly contribute to the high standards of the Journal.

Autistic reviewers will be asked to give their opinion about whether the paper addresses high priority topics, the findings can have a true impact on the autistic community, the article is written in a respectful manner, and the community brief is comprehensible to the public.

Please review the Journal's language policies prior to submission.

Manuscript Types and Guidelines 

Original Research Articles 

 Descriptions of rigorously conducted empirical research studies  

  • Structured abstract of no more than 300 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 6,000-word limit for main text 
  • Main text uses standard heading structure (i.e., Background, Methods, Results, Discussion) 
  • Authors should follow international reporting guidelines as described at (i.e., CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, SQUIRE for quality improvement studies, etc.). 
  • Clinical trials registration required, as applicable (see below) 
  • Maximum total of 4 (four) tables and/or figures  

Brief Research Reports 

 Concise, focused reports about original research  

  • Structured abstract of no more than 300 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 2,500-word limit for main text 
  • Main text uses standard heading structure (i.e., Background, Methods, Results, Discussion) 
  • Authors should follow same reporting guidelines as for Original Research 
  • Maximum total of two (2) figures and/or tables  

Conceptual Analysis 

 Well-supported, in-depth analytic essays advancing theory, practice or policy 

  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 6,000-word limit for main text 
  • Main text may use alternate heading structure, at authors’ discretion 
  • Manuscripts should present a novel idea, develop a new conceptual theory or model, or synthesize the literature in an innovative way  
  • Maximum total of 4 (four) tables and/or figures  

Advances in Methodology 

 Evidence- or practice-based recommendations that advance research methods, processes, or   approaches 

  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 6,000-word limit for main text 
  • Main text may use alternate heading structure, at authors’ discretion 
  • Authors should focus on transferable lessons that may inform how others conduct research on autism in adulthood 
  • Maximum total of 4 (four) tables and/or figures  

Emerging Practices 

 Well-referenced descriptions of innovative programs, interventions, technologies, or practices,   grounded in theory, with lessons learned from their initial implementation or pilot-testing

  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 4000-word limit for main text 
  • Main Text Structure: Introduction (including why this emerging practice is needed and how the practice is grounded in the literature); Emerging Practice (a clear description of the emerging practice, intervention, technology, or other advancement); Evaluation Methods; Results and Lessons Learned (including evaluation data, observations from practice, and other lessons from initial implementation efforts); Discussion (including conclusions, how this work advances the literature, limitations, implications, and next steps). 
  • Maximum total of 4 (four) tables and/or figures  

Systematic Literature Reviews 

 Systematically conducted literature reviews or scoping reviews, with or without meta-analysis 

  • Structured abstract of no more than 300 words   
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 6,000-word limit for main text 
  • Main text uses standard heading structure (i.e., Background, Methods, Results, Discussion) 
  • Authors should follow the guidelines in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement ( 
  • Authors should submit include a PRISMA flow diagram as part of the manuscript and submit the PRISMA checklist as supplemental information 
  • Include the systematic review registration number and funding source, as appropriate. 
  • Maximum total of 4 (four) tables and/or figures  
  • Authors should summarize the most important information in tables for the main article and present additional, more detailed information as online supplemental materials. 

Brief Systematic Reviews 

 Brief reports of systematic literature reviews or scoping reviews when the evidence is too scant to   justify a full-length article 

  • Structured abstract of no more than 300 words   
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 3,000-word limit for main text 
  • Main text uses standard heading structure (i.e., Background, Methods, Results, Discussion) 
  • Authors should follow the same guidelines as for full-length systematic reviews 
  • Discussion should lay out a research agenda and recommendations to the field. 
  • Maximum total of 2 (two) tables and/or figures  

Narrative or clinical reviews 

 Thorough and balanced reviews of available evidence, melded with expert opinion, where a   systematically conducted review would not be possible or clinically useful 

  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 6000-word limit for main text. 
  • Main text may use alternate heading structure, at authors’ discretion 
  • Maximum total of 4 (four) tables and/or figures  
  • Note: Autism in Adulthood strongly prefers systematically conducted reviews. Authors should clearly justify their choice to use a narrative review format. 


 Well-referenced opinions or recommendations on topics related to research, practice, or policy 

  • Unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words  
  • Community Brief of no more than 500 words  
  • 4000-word limit for main text 
  • Main text may use alternate heading structure, at authors’ discretion 
  • Authors should be transparent about their own positionality, experience, and expertise. 
  • Perspectives must synthesize and advance the literature in a novel way, through the author(s) own lens(es), not solely review the current state of the science.  
  • All articles must end with one or more sections focused on the authors’ recommendations 
  • Maximum total of 2 (two) tables and/or figures  


 Invited personal memoir-like essays from autistic adults or other stakeholders that provide important   insights to the field  

  • No abstract  
  • No Community Brief 
  • 2,000-word limit for main text 
  • The essay should be written for an academic audience and use citations, if appropriate, but it should be in the author’s own voice. The author should use their personal experiences to provide insights to others in the field. 
  • Essays may be in a variety of formats, including, but not limited to first-person narratives, creative non-fiction, poetry, and graphics.   
  • Note: Insight Essay authors work directly with our Insight Essay Editors. If interested in potentially writing an Insight Essay, please contact the editorial office at prior to writing the essay.  
  • Do not use the ScholarOne System to submit Insight Essay manuscripts.  

Letters to the Editor 

Letters commenting on the scientific content of an article published in the Journal  

  • No abstract  
  • No Community Brief  
  • 500-word limit for main text 
  • May include one figure OR table  
  • No more than ten (10) citations

Guest Editorials

Solicited by the Editor to discuss a pressing issue or to accompany a manuscript to be published in Autism in Adulthood 

  • No abstract  
  • No Community Brief 
  • 2000 word limit for main text 
  • Maximum of ten (10) references  
  • Please do NOT submit unsolicited editorials.

Reviews of Book, Media, and Other Resources 

Solicited reviews of published works relevant to research on autism in adulthood 

  • No abstract  
  • No Community Brief 
  • 1,000-word limit (or greater at the discretion of the Editors)  
  • Autism in Adulthood does NOT accept unsolicited reviews. 

Word limits do NOT pertain to the abstract, disclosure statements, author contribution statements, funding information, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, or references. 

Language Policies

Use of active voice and concise language 

Autism in Adulthood recommends the use of the active voice as opposed to the passive voice. Further, we recommend that the actor in a sentence always be explicitly identified for clarity. For example: “A research assistant administered the surveys.” (Not: “Surveys were administered.”) Autism in Adulthood also recommends use of clear, concise language. Avoid using sentences with excessive clauses or unnecessary complexity. 

Anti-ableist language 

Autism in Adulthood strives to use anti-ableist language throughout. See Recommendations for Avoiding Ableist Language for more details. 

Person-first vs. identity-first language 

Autism in Adulthood respects that there are strong arguments and passions on both sides of the debate between the use of person-first language (e.g., “person with autism”) and identity-first language (e.g., “autistic person”) in relation to autism. However, there is a growing body of scientific and community literature documenting the dislike, amongst autistic individuals, of person-first language and its potential for increasing stigma. Based on this literature and the strong preference of the autistic members of the journal’s Editorial Board, we recommend either using identity-first language, or more neutral terms such as "person on the autism spectrum.” 

Subpopulations within the autism spectrum 

Due to the ambiguity and potential offensiveness of terms such as “high functioning” or “low functioning” autism, “Kanner's” autism, or "mild" or "severe" autism, Autism in Adulthood recommends avoiding these terms. Instead, describe subpopulations using the specific characteristic(s) that make them a subpopulation. For example, "autistic people who qualify for developmental disability services," or "autistic people who primarily communicate using speech." 

Terms related to autism diagnoses 

The term “Autism Spectrum Disorder” (ASD) may be used when specifically discussing autism diagnoses. Otherwise, we recommend using terms such as “autism,” “autism spectrum,” “autistic adults,” or “autistic participants.” When referring to historic data, historic diagnoses such as Asperger's syndrome may be used; however, these terms should be considered out of date, and not used as terms for any part of the autism spectrum except when referring to someone’s self-identity. 

Strengths-based vs. deficits-based language 

Autism in Adulthood strongly encourages authors to take a strengths-based approach to writing about autism. Examples include: 

  • Referring to autism as a condition or disability instead of as a disease or illness; 
  • Using neutral terms such as "typically developing" or “non-autistic” rather than "healthy" or “normal;” 
  • Avoiding emotional phrases such as "suffering from autism;" 
  • Referring to “co-occurring” or “secondary” conditions instead of “comorbid” conditions; 
  • Referring to autistic characteristics in a neutral or positive manner, as opposed to as symptoms or deficits (e.g., “autistic traits,” “characteristics of autism,” or “features of autism” instead of “symptoms of autism”; “communication differences” instead of “communication deficits”). 

General guidelines for writing about disability more broadly 

There are many excellent guides to writing about disability more broadly. Authors may refer to resources from the following organizations: 

The Editors of Autism in Adulthood welcome questions by authors regarding language. We understand that language can be a gray area, can vary by geography and culture, and that there are many valid opinions. Contact the Editor for further guidance. 


Use only standard abbreviations, which can be found in the AMA’s Manual of Style for Authors and Editors, 10th edition or the Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style Manual, 8th edition. At first usage, spell out terms and provide abbreviations in parentheses. Thereafter, use only the abbreviations. It is not necessary to spell out standard units of measure. Use generic names for drugs if possible. If you wish to use a proprietary drug name the first time it appears, use the generic name followed by the proprietary name, manufacturer, and location in parentheses. 

Community Briefs 

Prepare a community brief, of up to 500 words, highlighting the most important aspects of the manuscript. This summary should be aimed at what the lay public, including autistic adults, family members, practitioners, services providers, and policymakers, would want to know about the manuscript. Please use Plain Language. Plain Language includes the use of short, simple sentences; the active (not passive) voice; and simple vocabulary. Avoid or define technical terms. 

For more information on Plain Language, please see: 

The Community Brief is not just a simplified version of the abstract. Note that the recommended questions do not correspond to the abstract headers. They more closely correspond to the main content of the manuscript. Authors should make sure that they answer the recommended questions fully. The Brief should stand on its own as a complete summary of the most important aspects of the manuscript. Authors should include the Community Brief in the main text file, immediately after the abstract.

Community Briefs should use a question-and-answer format. We recommend the following questions for each article type: 

Original Research and Brief Reports

  • “Why is this an important issue?”
  • “What was the purpose of this study?”
  • “What did the researchers do?”
  • “What were the results of the study?”
  • “What do these findings add to what was already known?”
  • “What are potential weaknesses in the study?”
  • “How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future?” 

Emerging Practices

  • “Why was this program developed?”
  • “What does the program do?”
  • “How did the researchers evaluate the new program?”
  • “What were the early findings?”
  • “What were the weaknesses of this project?” 
  • ”What are the next steps?”
  • “How will this work help autistic adults now or in the future?”


  • “Why is this topic important?”
  • “What is the purpose of this article?”
  • “What personal or professional perspectives do the authors bring to this topic?”
  • “What is already known about this topic?”
  • “What do the authors recommend?”
  • “How will these recommendations help autistic adults now or in the future?”

Other article types, including Conceptual Analysis, Advances in Methodology, and Literature Reviews 

  • Authors should choose similar questions, but may tailor them to fit the content of the manuscript. 


Clinical Trials Registration  

Autism in Adulthood ascribes to the registration policies of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that can be found at Appropriate registries (such as must be accessible to the public at no charge and must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a not-for-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. Please include the appropriate Trial Registration Number on the Title Page of the submitted manuscript.  


Autism in Adulthood follows the AMA style. References must be prepared in Word, double spaced, and numbered consecutively as they are cited in the text. Include the reference section as part of the main text file, not as a separate file. References should be cited in the text in numerical order using superscript numbers without parentheses and placed outside of sentence punctuation. References appearing for the first time in tables and figures must be numbered in sequence with those cited in the text where the table or figure is mentioned. Use journal abbreviations as provided by PubMed/Medline. List all authors when there are six or fewer. When there are more than six authors, list the first three, followed by et al. 

If references to personal communications or unpublished data are used, they are not to be in the list of references. They should be referred to in the text in parentheses with the researcher’s name and date: (e.g., AB Jones, personal communication, month and year of communication). Include among the references any articles that have been accepted but have not yet published; identify the name of publication and add "In Press." If the reference has been published online, provide the DOI number in place of the page range. 

At this time, Autism in Adulthood does not yet have an output style in EndNote, but you may use the journal JAMA as a substitute as it follows the same reference style. Go to, search for “JAMA” and download the output style.* 

*Note: The Publisher of Autism in Adulthood does not provide technical support for EndNote. If you have questions, click on the Support tab on EndNote’s website for assistance. 

Sample style for references: 

Journal article: 

Raymaker DM, Teo AR, Steckler NA, et al. "Having all of your internal resources exhausted beyond measure and being left with no clean-up crew": defining autistic burnout. Autism in Adulthood. 2020;2(2):132-143.  

Siew CT, Mazzucchelli TG, Rooney R, Girdler S. A specialist peer mentoring program for university students on the autism spectrum: a pilot study. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0180854. 

The preferred citation style for an electronic journal uses a DOI (digital object identifier). The DOI provides a persistent link to the electronic item and is considered to be more stable than a URL. If the DOI is not given on the full text article or in the citation, use a DOI Lookup Tool to locate it or use the format for an electronic article without a DOI. 


Wright SD, ed. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mid and Later Life. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2016. 

Chapter in a book:

Crapnell T, Lau L, Hanks CD, Nicolaidis C, Kuo AA. Autism. In: Pilapil M, DeLaet DE, Kuo AA, Peacock C, Sharma N, eds. Care of Adults with Chronic Childhood Conditions: A Practical Guide. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016:53–65. 


National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of Persons with Severe Disabilities (NJC.) History of the National Joint Committee. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Accessed August 27, 2020. 

Conference Proceedings: 

Please follow this structure for Conference Proceeding references, including capitalization and punctuation: 

List all Authors’ (or) Editors’ names (last name first, followed by first and middle initials). Conference title. Date of conference. Location of conference. City of publisher: Publisher; Year of publication. Complete number of pages in proceedings book. 


Preprints may be cited in the same manner as a journal article. Discretion is recommended as preprints are, by definition, not peer reviewed. 


General Guidelines

All manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals ( Please consult your specific journal’s requirements for additional information.

All Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journals follow the standards, guidelines, and best practices set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE;, the International Committee of Journal Medical Editors (ICJME;, the World Medical Association (WMA);, and the American Medical Association (

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. recommends that submissions follow standard relevant reporting guidelines. Please consult The Equator Network for more information.

Specific journal requirements will vary, however the general order of elements in each manuscript should be

  • Title page* with full manuscript title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a short running title, a denotation of the corresponding author, and a list of 4-6 keywords/search terms,
  • Abstract,
  • Main text without embedded figures or tables and with appropriate section headings, if applicable. Most research papers should be organized as follows: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.
  • Acknowledgments,
  • Authorship confirmation statement,
  • Author(s’) disclosure  (Conflict of Interest) statement(s), even when not applicable,
  • Funding statement, even when not applicable,
  • References,
  • Tables included in the text or as a separate document,
  • Figure legends at the end of the main text or in a separate Word file,
  • Figures uploaded as individual high-resolution files,
  • Supplemental files uploaded as individual files.

*Double-blinded journals require a separate title page with the title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a denotation of the corresponding author, author acknowledgements, disclosures, and related identifying information.

Your individual journal may require

  • An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval (or waiver) statement and statement of patient consent as a separate paragraph after the methods section,
  • Other relevant ethics attestations (see for further guidance),
  • Data sharing statement,
  • Specific abstract and content sections, depending on manuscript type,
  • Word count limits, tables/figure limits, and reference format requirements.

Please check your journal’s requirements for file formatting. Many journals require formatting compliance only on revision; however, unless stated, the file formatting should comply with the following requirements on submission.

Manuscript Files

The main text file, figure legends, and tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Some journals may accept LaTex. Please consult your individual journal instructions for guidance.

File Naming

  • All file names should be in English and contain only alphanumeric characters.
  • Do not include spaces, symbols, special characters, dashes, dots, or underscores.
  • Title each file with the type of content contained in the file (e.g., manuscript.doc, tables.doc, FigureLegends.doc, Fig1.tif, SupplementalData.pdf, etc.).


  • Submission of high resolution .TIFF or .EPS figure files is preferred. Please upload as individual files.
  • Cite figures consecutively in text within parentheses
  • Images should not reveal the name of a patient or a manufacturer

Figure Legends

  • A legend should be provided for each supplied figure.
  • All legends should be numbered consecutively. 
  • Figure legends may be included at the end of the main text file or uploaded as a separate, double-spaced Word file.
  • In each legend, provide explanations for any abbreviations or symbols that appear in the figure. 
  • If the figure is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.


  • Tables may be included after the references at the end of the main text file, or uploaded as a single, separate Word file. All tables should be editable.
  • Provide a title for each supplied table. 
  • Cite tables sequentially in text within parentheses.
  • Explain abbreviations used in the body of the table in footnotes using superscript letters, not symbols. 
  • If a table is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.

Supplemental Files

  • Supplemental files should be uploaded as individual files. Most text, photo, graphic, and video formats are accepted. Ensure that patient identities are not revealed.
  • Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.
  • For journals that publish accepted versions of papers prior to copyediting and typesetting, supplemental files will not be posted with the paper until after production has been completed.


Upon manuscript submission, the submitting agent will have an opportunity to enter funding/grant information. If funding information is entered correctly, the publisher will deposit the funding acknowledgements from the article as part of the standard metadata to Funder Registry. The entered information should include funder names, funder IDs (if available), and associated grant numbers. Special care should be taken when entering this information to ensure total accuracy. Funding information must also be provided within the manuscript.

Government Funded Research / Funder Requirements

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., adheres to national and international funder requirements. Various funders, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), have specific requirements for depositing the accepted version and/or the article of record version in a repository after an embargo period. Authors funded by these organizations should follow the self-archiving terms and conditions of these separate agreements based on the policies of the specific funding institutions. If you have questions, please contact us for more information.

Peer Review

All submissions are subject to peer review after initial editorial evaluation for suitability. A minimum of two reviews are required for most journals if the manuscript proceeds to the review stage. Final decisions on the manuscript are solely at the discretion of the Editor(s).


Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, in the same form or substantially similar form. Conference abstracts are excluded. If work was presented at a conference, supply the name, date, and location of the meeting as a footnote on the title page of the submission.

Third-party Submissions and Integrity

If a third party is submitting the manuscript, the submitting agent designation must be used, with the identity of the submitting agent disclosed. We reserve the right to reject any manuscript that does not contain this disclosure. The authors are solely responsible for any manuscript submitted on their behalf.


Editors and reviewers must maintain strict confidentiality of manuscripts during the peer-review process. Sharing a manuscript in whole or in part, outside the scope of what is necessary for assessment, is impermissible prior to an accepted manuscript's official publication date. Reviewers are not permitted to contact authors directly.

Sharing of Materials

Authors must honor any reasonable request for materials, methods, or data necessary to reproduce or validate the research findings during peer review unless it violates the privacy or confidentiality of human research subjects.

Conflicts of Interest by the Editor-in-Chief and/or Section Editors

The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors will recuse themselves from participating in the review process of any manuscript in which there is a potential or actual competing interest.

Plagiarism, Peer Review, and Publication Integrity

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is committed to maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process by upholding the highest standards for all published articles. All manuscripts will be analyzed and evaluated for plagiarism, peer review integrity, and publication integrity. Plagiarized manuscripts or manuscripts with evidence of publication or peer review misconduct will be rejected immediately. If publication misconduct is identified, we reserve the right to rescind acceptance prior to publication.


Authorship is defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Roles & Responsibilities. Contributors who do not meet all criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section with a description of their contribution to the work.


All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier.

Corresponding Authors

One author should be designated as the corresponding author who will be responsible for communication between the authors and the journal editorial office and publisher. This individual will be responsible for ensuring all authors submit copyright forms, coordinating and responding to page proofs, and managing any other necessary contact during the peer review and production processes.

The submission system permits only one author to be identified as the corresponding author of record. However, we recognize that some submissions call for more than one corresponding author to be noted. In such cases, select one author to be the main point of contact for all communications regarding the peer review process of the paper, and on the title page of the manuscript, designate additional co-corresponding authors by including an asterisk after the authors' names in the byline. Include an accompanying footnote on the title page that reads, "*Co-corresponding authors." Please ensure that the title page carries the full affiliation details and email address of any author who should be noted as a corresponding author. If the paper is accepted for publication, the full contact information for all designated co-authors will be listed at the end of the article as per usual journal style.

Changes in Authorship

Changes in authorship after submission or acceptance of a paper are generally not permitted, but the editorial leadership recognizes that in certain circumstances, it may be required. The policy for such cases is as follows:

  • A request to alter authorship must be made in writing from the corresponding author to the Editor-in-Chief, with a detailed explanation for the request, the nature of the changes, and the names and affiliations of all authors.
  • Written approval of all authors named on the manuscript, as well as any individual(s) being added to the author list must be provided. The Publisher can provide a form for this, if needed.
  • Upon receipt of the request and all written approvals of all involved parties, the Editor-in-Chief will consider the request, render a decision, and notify the corresponding author.
  • Post-publication changes or alterations to conference abstracts are prohibited.

Author Disclosure Statements

Upon submission, authors are required to fully disclose any interests, funding or employment that may inappropriately influence or affect the integrity of the submission. Authors should disclose

  • Competing Interests. A competing interest exists when an individual (or the individual's institution) has financial or personal relationships that may inappropriately influence his actions. These competing interests may be potential or actual, financial or other.
  • Personal Financial Interests. Stocks or shares in a company that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; consulting fees or other remuneration from an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; patents or patent applications that are owned by or licensed to companies/institutions that may gain or lose value from publication of the article.
  • Funding. Research support by organizations that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article. This support includes salary, equipment, supplies, honoraria, reimbursement or prepayment for attending symposia, and other expenses.
  • Employment. Recent (within the past 5 years), current, or anticipated employment by an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article.
  • Other Competing Interests. Any personal relationship which may inappropriately affect the integrity of the research reported (by an author) or the objectivity of the review of the manuscript (by a reviewer or Editor), for example, competition between investigators, previous disagreements between investigators, or bias in professional judgment.


Authors should identify as their institution(s) the facility where the work was performed and executed. Changes in an author’s affiliation after the work was completed, but prior to the submission or publication of the manuscript should be noted using a superscript asterisk in the author listing and a footnote on the title page indicating “Current Address” and listing the new affiliation. Corrections to affiliations or contact information due to relocation after publication is not permitted.


When reproducing copyrighted material such as figures, tables, or excerpted text, the author(s) of the submitted paper must obtain permission from the original publisher or owner of material and submit it concurrently with the manuscript. The figure or table source must be listed in the reference list. With any copyrighted material, include a footnote with proper attribution (e.g. "Reprinted by permission from Jones et al.") and the appropriate reference. All permissions must be supplied at the time of submission. Authors are responsible for any fees that may be incurred by securing permission to reproduce or adapt material from other published sources.


Institutional Review Board Approvals/Waivers

When reporting research involving human data, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed have been assessed by the responsible institutional and national review committee. If no formal ethics committee is available; authors should indicate if research was completed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Approval by a responsible review committee does not preclude editors from forming their own judgment whether the conduct of the research was appropriate.

If the study is judged exempt from review, a statement from the committee is required. Informed consent by participants should always be secured. If not possible, an institutional review board must decide if this is ethically acceptable. This information should be outlined in the cover letter accompanying the submission, and a sentence declaring adherence should be included in the Materials and Methods section of the main text.

Ethics of Experimentation

See the following resources for studies involving human fetuses, fetal tissue, embryos, and embryonic cells:

Ethical Treatment of Animals

All peer-reviewed submissions containing animal experiments must comply with local and national regulatory principles and contain a statement in the Materials and Methods section of the main text stating whether national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Human Subjects: Patient Consent and Release

If applicable, it is incumbent upon the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce any identifiable images of patients. Any identifying information should not be published in descriptions or photographs unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or patients’ parent/guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be submitted. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity cannot be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are de-identified, the manuscript should contain assurances/statements that such changes do not distort scientific meaning.

In keeping with patients' rights of privacy, the Journal does not require the submission of patient consent forms, but instead requires the author(s) to retain and archive all patient consent documentation. Upon submission of a manuscript for review, the authors must make a statement in the cover letter to the Editor/Journal which attests that they have received and archived written patient consent in addition to providing the requisite statement in the manuscript.

Data Sharing

We recommend, but do not require, the sharing and archiving of data and any other artifacts that define and support the results stated in a manuscript in a suitable public repository (in accordance with valid privacy, legal, and ethical guidelines). We recommend that a data availability statement be included in the manuscript in the Methods section or as a separate section at the end of the main text file. Describe the location of the data, details on how it can be accessed and any licensing information. If the data is not publicly available or accessible, that information should also be provided.

Datasets should be cited in the reference list.

Important: Please check with your funding agencies to ensure that are you following their data sharing polices. If your funding agency has additional requirements exceeding our policy, you must follow the requirements of your funder.

Preprint Servers

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., allows for papers that were previously deposited on preprint servers to be submitted to our journals, with the proviso that the author updates any preprint versions with a link to the final published article. All submissions, even those deposited on preprint servers, are subject to peer review and does not guarantee publication in any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journal.

The submitting author of a paper which was previously deposited to a preprint server should include a disclosure on the title page of the manuscript indicating the name and website of the server and include the DOI number of the preprint.

Referencing/citing non-peer-reviewed material that is found on any preprint server is generally discouraged by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journals, but if it is necessary, the citation must indicate that the content is not officially published in a journal, and can only be found on a preprint server.


Published manuscripts for non-Open Access journals become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. The author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership in such manuscript to the Journal unless alternate arrangements are made prior to publication, including CC-BY licensing or if the Journal publishes under an Open Access model.

Upon acceptance, authors will receive a link to sign and complete the copyright transfer form (subject to exceptions listed above). Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement for not releasing the copyright.

Post Acceptance/Publication

All accepted manuscripts will go through copyediting, typesetting, figure sizing and placement, author proofing, corrections, revisions (from corrected proofs), online-ahead-of-print release, and lastly, issue assignment. Changes or alterations to a submission are not permitted after acceptance but should be addressed in page proofs.

Instant Online Publication (Just Accepted Program)

Journals in the Just Accepted program (formerly known as Instant Online) publish all accepted papers within 72 hours of receipt of all authors' signed copyright agreement forms in their unedited, uncorrected format on our Just Accepted platform.

The information that is published online, and in all indexing services, is pulled directly from the data that is populated into the fields in ScholarOne Manuscripts™ – NOT from the main text file – when the paper is originally uploaded to the system for peer review. Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline, until the next revision* of the article is published. As such, it is critical that authors enter all authors’ names correctly into the system at the time of submission. Any omissions or errors will remain on our website and in indexing services until the subsequent online version is published.

*The next revision will take place after the corresponding author reviews page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher. Once the alterations are completed, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will then be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.

Please note that the typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 3-6 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.

Journals participating in the Just Accepted program do not post any supplemental files/information until post acceptance steps are completed on the submission.

Page Proofs

Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as designated in ScholarOne™ when the manuscript was submitted. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to share the page proofs with co-authors, if desired, and to coordinate all authors' corrections into one proof. The Publisher will not accept corrections from multiple authors/sources.

Author Response to the Galley Proof

The corresponding author is responsible for returning corrected galley proofs. Only corrections directly related to errors in typesetting and/or layout will be allowed. Any requested changes related to content, or that alter the outcome of a study, will require the approval of the Editor, and may require further peer review. If the corresponding author does not respond to page proofs, the manuscript may be delayed in the publication schedule, or published as-is, at the discretion of the Editor. If the corresponding author expects to be unavailable during the time the manuscript is in production, the publisher should be provided with an alternate contact. 

Post Publication Corrections

In the event an error is discovered after publication of an article, the corresponding author should submit the correction in writing to the Journal Editorial Office for consideration. After Editor approval, alterations will be made to the online version of the article, and if the errors are significant, an official correction statement will be issued.

  • Changes to author affiliations or contact details due to relocation after publication are not permitted.
  • Corrections to meeting abstracts will be made only to the online version. The Journal does not issue formal correction statements to meeting abstracts, regardless of the nature of the correction.
  • Correction Statements/Errata to published articles that require the reproduction of color figure(s) and/or table(s) may incur additional costs to the author(s).
  • Requests for post-publication corrections to funding information will require institutional documentation showing that the funds were to be used for the published work. 


Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany the proofs and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after the issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.


Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following

  • Scientific misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Authorship disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist's contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.
  • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.
  • Conflict of Interest: Nondisclosure of any direct or indirect conflicts to the Journal, which prevents you from being unbiased, constitutes misconduct.
  • Misrepresentation: Deliberate misrepresentation of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance a research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another's work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Simultaneous Submission: Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.
  • Peer Review Fraud: Individuals who knowingly commit peer review fraud or violate the standard accepted practices of peer review will be reported to their institutions. 

Publisher’s Response to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct

The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into any allegation. As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with Associate Editors and/or members of the Editorial Board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will determine if there is enough reasonable evidence that misconduct possibly occurred. Some instances may require the Editor and/or Publisher to report the instance to the authors’ institution for arbitration and/or investigation. The Editor and Publisher will follow the institutions’ findings for resolution.

When allegations concern conflict between authors, the peer review or publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be substituted in the review process while the matter is investigated.

Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal and reported to their institution(s).

If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record. If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal. If the inquiry leads to a lengthy investigation, the Journal will issue an interim Expression of Concern which will identify the concern for readers until a resolution is reached.

Every attempt will be made to keep all allegations confidential.


The journal and its publisher are committed to upholding the proper protocols and established standards of peer review. Published papers found to be in violation of the accepted standard principles of peer review and scientific publishing will be officially retracted from the literature. An official retraction notice explaining in full detail the need for a retraction will be published.

**Any fees collected for an article that is subsequently retracted are non-refundable.

Press Embargo

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., permits the use of accepted pre-published manuscripts for the sole purpose of pitching to news organizations under strict embargo, and with the approval of and expressed collaboration with the publisher. A watermarked PDF version of the article (not a Word document or any other editable version) may be shared only with named, personal contacts at trusted news sources upon request. News sources must be informed upon delivery of the PDF that the manuscript is for reference-only purposes and can be used only in preparation of their news coverage of the article. It is strictly prohibited to publicly share, post, or otherwise distribute the PDF in any media format. Upon official publication of the article, news organizations must link directly to the published article on the Publisher’s Journal website. To coordinate publication timing and press efforts, please contact the Director of Marketing.


Three versions of the article format are referenced in the policy guidelines below:

  • Original Submission: The article version that is submitted by the author for consideration, before peer review.
  • Accepted Version: The article version that has been formally accepted after peer review, prior to any typesetting for the journal. This is the version accepted by the Editor, before proofs, corrections, and typesetting. Also known as the “raw” accepted version of a manuscript.
  • Article of Record: This article version is the “version of record” that has been formally copyedited, typeset, and published online ahead of print and/or in a journal issue. It is the same version published in the “Online Now” section of the Journal website.

Self-Archiving Policy

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers offer authors many options and opportunities to self-archive their work.

• Subscription/Hybrid Journals
  Embargo Personal Website Institutional Repository or Company Website Preprint Server Other Repository
Original Submission No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Accepted Version Personal Website: No Institutional or Other Repository: 12 months post-publication *No embargo if Open Access is purchased Yes Yes No Yes
Article of Record Yes With Open Access license or publisher permission only With Open Access license or publisher permission only No With Open Access license or by funder requirement

• Open Access Journals All Open Access journals at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. assign a CC-BY license to authors, unless otherwise noted. Below are the policies consistent with this license. For more information on this license, please visit Creative Commons.
  Embargo Personal Website Institutional Repository or Company Website Preprint Server Other Repository
Original Submission No No Yes Yes Yes
Accepted Version No Yes Yes No Yes
Article of Record Yes Yes Yes No Yes

Learn more about publishing your work Open Access here.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ society partners or associated affiliates may set self-archiving policies independently, outside of the general policies mentioned below. Authors should refer to the copyright policy of their chosen journal, or by contacting the specific journal editorial office directly. In addition, specific funding organizations have separate agreements and authors should refer to the policies of those specific funding agencies prior to the submission of their manuscript.

If your submission is formally accepted after peer review in one of our journals, authors must include an acknowledgement of acceptance for publication on all archive sites and, following online publication, authors must include the following notice on the first page:

This is the original submission version (pre-peer review) of the following article: [full citation], which has now been formally published in final form at [journal title] at [link to final article using the DOI]. This original submission version of the article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ Self-Archiving Terms and Conditions.

The original submission version posted may never be updated or replaced with the article of record version unless the author chooses to publish their paper Open Access under any of the Creative Commons Licenses available through the Publisher. If you are interested in publishing your work Open Access, please feel free to review our Open Access Policies and Licenses or contact us.

Other Terms and Conditions

Authors may use either the original submission or accepted version for curricular or teaching purposes, dissertations, theses, or books, provided that all posted versions include the aforementioned policies, and follow all guidelines and requirements specified. Additionally, authors may share original submission or accepted versions with researchers and research colleagues provided that such sharing is not for commercial purposes.

The self-archived submitted and accepted versions may only be used in non-commercial capacities. Individual users may view, print, download, and copy self-archived articles, as well as text and data mine the content conditions for non-commercial and non-promotional research and private study purposes, under the following requirements

  • The authors' moral rights are not compromised and there is clear "attribution" of the author(s) in the shared work.
  • The authors’ integrity remains intact; the work should never be altered in such a way that the author's reputation may be damaged.
  • Any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content.
  • Self-archived content may never be republished verbatim in whole or in part in print or online formats.

U.S. Sanctioned Countries

The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on US foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. (Source: Office of Foreign Assets Control – Sanctions Program and Information)

Our journal Editors welcome contributions from researchers around the world; however, they are also required to follow sanction laws and regulations. As of August 2020, sanction measures imposed by the United States, United Nations, European Union, and Australia are currently in place against the following countries: Cuba, Crimea, Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Journal editors will treat with caution any submission from a sanctioned country regarding the subject matter and will seek appropriate legal advice from the publisher if necessary.

Papers from sanctioned countries that are submitted to any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journal MUST contain a confirmation statement after the conclusion section of the manuscript which indicates that EACH listed author confirms that their research is supported by an institution that is primarily involved in education or research.

For further questions, please contact our Director of Production and Editorial Operations.

Archiving and Preservation

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., deposits and archives all publications in Portico for long-term digital preservation. Your article will be easily searchable on Google, Google Scholar, and other search engines.

Publisher Information

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, NY 10801; Tel: 914-740-2100; Email:; Website:

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers has partnered with Editage and Impact Science to provide a dynamic suite of specialized editorial services to ensure your manuscript has the impact it deserves.


Make Your Manuscript Submission-Ready

English Language Editing Services
Our pre-submission English Language Editing Services pair you with a highly qualified native English-speaking editor within your specific field of study. Dedicated support includes a detailed review of grammar, punctuation, terminology, and spelling, as well as an intensive edit for organization. We also offer post-submission support where needed.

English-Language Translation with Editing Services
Write your paper in your native language and our expert team will provide you with a translation that meets international publication standards while preserving the science and accuracy of your manuscript. Our translators and editors offer subject-specific expertise and editing skills to ensure that your manuscript conveys every nuance of your research to a global audience.


Accelerate Your Research Impact

Research Promotion Services
Amplify your research with engaging infographics, video abstracts, plain language summaries, and more to ensure your manuscript is discovered, read, and cited. Our specialized team of communication experts, scientists, and designers will transform your research into impactful text, graphical, and audio-visual formats that resonate with a wider audience and increase engagement.

Visit our Author Services portal now for more information and to get started!


All Editage services are fee-based services that authors can opt-into as an added author benefit to amplify the readability, visibility, findability, and shareability of their work.

Liebert Open Access

Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) option

Explore Liebert Open Access

Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?

The Liebert Open Access option enables authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.

The benefits of Liebert Open Access include:

  • High visibility; open access articles are freely available online upon publication
  • You retain copyright with the open access license allowing broad dissemination of your research
  • You can freely share your article in repositories and research networks without restrictions
  • Easy compliance with open access mandates
  • Rigorous editorial and peer-review
  • Targeted email announcement featuring a direct link to article

Identification and Marketing

Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC alerts, and in marketing announcements. Open access articles are highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.

Copyright and Licensing

If you choose to publish with open access, you will retain copyright of your article and a Creative Commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

At this time we allow authors to choose between the CC-BY or CC-BY-NonCommercial license. A limited number of journals offer NonCommercial licenses exclusively.

Ordering Open Access

Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Access. If you would like more information about Liebert Open Access or would like to order open access, please email

Publishing open access includes an article publication charge (APC) and authors are asked to fill out a short open access order form.  You can pay by credit card or receive an invoice to be returned with payment or via bank transfer. Please remember that traditional subscription journals can carry mandatory or optional author fees. The Liebert Open Access APC does not cover or replace existing publication or author fees.

Publishing biomedical or biotechnology research?

Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. For details, please visit the information for authors on the journal website.

 *Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.


Browse journals in the Liebert Open Access portfolio:


  • There are no submission fees to Autism in Adulthood.
  • There no page charges for Autism in Adulthood.
  • Autism in Adulthood is currently waiving fees for publishing images in color.
  • Open Access and Creative Commons licensing options are available. Contact our Open Access Manager for more information.
  • For pricing and purchasing reprints, contact our Reprints Manager.
  • Any fees collected or payments associated with a submitted and/or published paper that is subsequently withdrawn and/or retracted for any reason are non-refundable.

The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them.