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Information For Authors

Manuscripts must be submitted using the following URL:

All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier. Please visit the ORCID website for more information, or to register.

Please read all the instructions to authors before submitting.

Language must conform to acceptable English usage and syntax. The contents must be clear, accurate, coherent, and logical. The Editors will also consider its originality, teaching value, and validity.
Please refer to the Word Limit section of these instructions for guidance on manuscript types and length. Occasional exceptions to these limitations may be made at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. To facilitate a quick review of manuscripts, authors are encouraged to suggest names of three to five potential reviewers with complete contact information when the manuscript is submitted.

The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with coauthors to make sure they have completed the online copyright form. Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement of the reason for not releasing the copyright.

Manuscript Submission and Review

Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract. Prior abstract publications should be described in the form of a footnote to the title. Published manuscripts become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted. By submitting a paper to the Journal, the author (or authors) agrees to each of the above conditions. In addition, the author (or authors) explicitly assigns any copyrighted ownership he/she (or they) may have in such paper to the Journal.

As of March 21, 2019, Big Data is format-neutral for original submissions.  After the initial peer review process, revised submissions must follow correct journal formatting and file guidelines, as described in the Instructions for Authors.

All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier. Please visit the ORCID website for more information, or to register.

Keywords (Areas of Expertise)

To facilitate the peer review process, select 4-6 keywords from the drop-down list of pre-selected terms when submitting your manuscript.   These keywords will assist in the selection of skilled reviewers in the field for the purposes of peer review.

Manuscript keywords (search terms): On the title page of the manuscript, include a minimum of three (3), maximum of six (6), search terms that will aid in the discoverability of the article in indexing services and search engines.  These terms may or may not be different from the terms you selected for the peer review process and areas of expertise.  You will be asked to retype these search terms in the submission form when uploading your manuscript.  These keywords will be included in the published article.  If the search terms entered do not match the manuscript, the manuscript will serve as the default.

Cover Letter
All submissions should include a cover letter from the corresponding author at the time of submission. The cover letter should include the following:

  • A declaration that the submission has received all authors’ Internal Review Board (IRB) approvals, if applicable.  If IRB approval has been waived, state the reason for exemption in the cover letter.
  • A statement detailing each listed author’s role to the development of the paper (see the Authorship paragraph* below for more information).
  • A statement indicating that the article has not been previously published in any form
  • A statement confirming that the article is not under consideration nor in press elsewhere
  • Authors are encouraged to detail the significance and uniqueness of the work in a single paragraph
  • If non-preferred reviewers are selected, please state the reason for exclusion.


Authorship* should be determined at the time of submission. Ensure the author listing is complete and all names are spelled correctly.  According to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME), authorship is based on the following criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Corresponding Author:  It is the Journal’s policy that a submission carries only ONE corresponding author.  This designation should be determined at the time of submission.  All communications, except for individual copyright forms, will be managed through the corresponding author.

Acknowledgment of Non-Qualifying Contributors

Contributors who do not meet all four (4) of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they may be recognized in an Acknowledgment section. Some examples of activities that alone (without other contributions) do not qualify for authorship are: 

  • Acquisition of funding;
  • General supervision of a research group or general administrative support;
  • Writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading.

Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under the heading, Acknowledgments, and should be included in at the end of the manuscript before the Author Disclosure Statement(s).

Submitting Author/Agent:  It is incumbent upon the submitting author/agent to ensure the inclusion and accuracy of all contributing authors’ names, valid email addresses, and affiliations upon original submission of the paper. Once a paper is accepted for publication, changes in authorship are generally not permitted.  Changes in authorship after publication are strictly prohibited.

Manuscript Types and Word Limits**

Word limits on the various types of manuscript types are as follows:

Original/Invited article:         8,000 words; 350 word maximum for abstracts
Review articles:              10-12,000 words; 350 word maximum for abstract (if applicable)
Commentaries:                     1,500 words; 150 word maximum for abstract (if applicable)
Perspectives:                     5,000 words; 350 word maximum for abstract (if applicable)
Letters to the Editor:            1,000 words
Brief Report:                     3,000 words; (350 word maximum for abstracts)
Guest Editorials:                   750 words
Meeting Reports:                  2,000 words
Point/Counterpoint              By invitation only
Roundtable Discussion           By invitation only

**Abstracts, references, figure legends, tables, disclosures, and acknowledgements do not count towards the word limits.

Preparation of Manuscripts

Please read all the instructions to authors before submitting.

  • Manuscripts *must* be submitted via upload in Word or LaTex format
  • Please do not include any figures and/or tables within the main text document. 
  • Tables should be submitted in individual Word files.
  • Figures should be supplied in separate files, be labeled clearly, and should be in TIF or EPS formats. Please see the Illustrations section for further details on art submission.  
  • Please visit: for LaTex instructions.
  • Do not upload PDFs of any text files.

All text must be double-spaced, including body, footnotes, references, legends, and tables. The title page should carry the full paper title, followed by the authors’ names, highest-received academic degree, and where the work was performed.  Also include a short title (running head) with a maximum of 45 characters (including spaces). Please indicate the corresponding author on the title page.

An abstract should accompany every original submission, as noted herein. Abstracts should appear on their own separate page of the manuscript file. It should consist of factual information and not generalities (the problem investigated, the method used, the results obtained, and the conclusions reached). A brief Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, Disclosure, and Reference sections should follow. At the conclusion of the references, the name and complete address of the corresponding author should appear.

For LaTex submissions:

For LaTeX submissions, the main LaTeX file should be uploaded as  "Main Document", and any files that are part of a LaTeX document should be designated as a "LaTeX Supplementary File."  For technical assistance, please contact Author Services.

Statistical Analysis  

If a statistical analysis is performed, an explanation of how it was performed must be stated at the end of the section preceding results. Unusual or complex methods of analysis should be referenced.


References in text should be numerical using superscripted numbers. Do not include brackets or parentheses. Text references must be supplied in sequence for all tables and figures.

Journal articles:

The references must be double-spaced and must be cited in the text in numerical order, not alphabetically. References to journal papers should include (1) Authors (first three, then et al), (2) article title, (3) journal name (as abbreviated in Medline), (4) year; (5) volume number: (6) inclusive page range, in that order.  Abbreviate journal names according to PubMed/Medline.


Ohno-Machado L.  Big science, big data, and a big role for biomedical informatics.  J Am Med Inform Assoc 2012; 19:e1.


References to books should include (1) author(s), (2) chapter title (if any), (3) editor (if any), (4) title of book, (5) city of publication, (6) publisher, (7) year, and (8) page range if chapter is used. Volume and edition numbers, and name of translator should be included when appropriate. The author is responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references.


Franks B. Taming the big data tidal wave: Finding opportunities in huge data streams with ddvanced analytics.  New York: Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.      


Please follow these guidelines for submitting figures:

  • Do NOT embed art files into a Word or PDF document. Figures provided in this format cannot be used for production purposes.
  • Line illustrations should be submitted at 900 dpi
  • Halftones and color should be submitted at a minimum of 300 dpi
  • Save as either TIFF or EPS files. JPEG files are for screen representation-quality only and will print very poorly during the printing process.  To ensure proper print quality, please submit only TIFF or EPS files.
  • Color art must be saved as CYMK—not RGB. (NB: If RGB files are submitted, the files will be converted to CYMK and some color variation will occur.)
  • Black and white art must be submitted as grayscale—not RGB.

Do NOT submit Bitmap or Excel files. When naming your figure and table files, please label them with the main author’s last name, followed by a period (.), and then list the figure number. Ex: Smith.Fig1; Smith.Table1.

Reprinted Figures:

Illustrations taken from other publications must be acknowledged by a complete credit line in the legend. The publisher’s letter of permission should be submitted to Big Data.

Additional information about converting figure files:

Converting Word or Excel files:

Perhaps the best and easiest way to convert Word or Excel files into a format which is suitable for print is to scan them using the below guidelines:

  •  Files should be scanned at 100% size
  • 300 dpi
  • Final color mode: CMYK
  • Save file as: .tif or .eps

If you need directions on how to convert a PowerPoint slide to acceptable format go to:


Please upload individual files of all manuscript material—do NOT upload a single PDF file containing all text, figure, and table files of your paper. Once all individual files are uploaded on to Manuscript Central, the system will automatically create a single PDF proof for you and the peer-review process.

Author Disclosure Statement

Immediately following the Acknowledgments section, include a section entitled Author Disclosure Statement. This text must be part of your actual manuscript file.  In this portion of the paper, authors must disclose any real or potential commercial associations that might create a conflict of interest in connection with submitted manuscripts. This statement should include appropriate information for EACH author, thereby representing that competing financial interests of all authors have been appropriately disclosed according to the policy of the Journal. It is important that all conflicts of interest, whether they are actual or potential, be disclosed. This information will remain confidential while the paper is being reviewed and will not influence the editorial decision.

Please see the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at for further guidance.  If no conflicts exist, the authors must state ‘‘No competing financial interests exist.’’


Study Design and Ethics

Documented review and approval from a formally constituted review board (Institutional Review Board or Ethics committee) should be required for all studies involving people, medical records, and human tissues. For those investigators who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. If the study is judged exempt from review, a statement from the committee should be required. Informed consent by participants should always be secured. If not possible, an institutional review board must decide if this is ethically acceptable. This information should be outlined in the cover letter accompanying the submission, and a sentence declaring adherence should be included in the acknowledgment section of the manuscript.

Animal experiments should require full compliance with local, national, ethical, and regulatory principles, and local licensing arrangements.

Definitions of Scientific Misconduct

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers generally follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Scientific Misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  •  Authorship Disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist’s contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.

  • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.

  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.

  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research:
    Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.

  • Conflict of Interest:  Nondisclosure of any conflicts, direct or indirect, to the Journal which prevents you from being unbiased constitutes misconduct.
  • Deliberate misrepresentation: of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance the research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
  • Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another’s work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.

  • Simultaneous Submission:  Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.

Responding to Allegations of Possible Misconduct

The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into an allegation.  As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with associate editors and/or members of the editorial board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or if the allegation is against an editor, an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will arrive at a conclusion as to whether there is enough reasonable evidence that the possibility of misconduct occurred.

When allegations concern authors, the peer review and publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. The investigation will be taken to completion even if the authors withdraw their paper.  In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be replaced in the review process while the matter is investigated.

Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal, and reported to their institution.

If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record.  If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal.

All allegations will be kept confidential.


Patients and Study Participants

All manuscripts must comply with the privacy and confidentiality requirements outlined on the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals website. For more information, visit

When articles include reports of studies on human subjects, state in the Methods section that an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approved the study. Authors who do not have formal ethics review committees should follow the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. In the Methods section, state that informed consent was obtained from subjects (specify written or verbal).

The principal author must state that if animals were used experimentally, permission was obtained from the appropriate committee(s), and that the animals were treated humanely and the standards conformed to those of current ethical animal research practices.

In addition, text and photographs should not reveal any identifying information unless it is essenti al for scientific purposes (in which case, consent should be obtained). Masking the subjects’ eyes in photographs is often insufficient to protect their identity.



When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

*This portion of the Instructions for Authors has been quoted directly from the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals website. For more information, visit

After Acceptance of a Submitted Manuscript

Page Proofs

An e-mail containing a link to the PDF file of the page proof is sent to the corresponding author. The proof should be read carefully and returned promptly to the Publisher with the author’s approval and/or corrections.


Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany page proofs, and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after an issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.


The Journal is published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215, Tel: (914) 740-2100; Fax: (914) 740-2101; E-mail:; Website:

Our dynamic Author Benefits Program provides you with end-to-end benefits that ensure your hard work pays off and your published manuscript gets the attention it deserves not just upon publication, but permanently.

Liebert Open Access

Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) Option

Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?

Liebert Open Option program allows authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.

The benefits of open option are:

- High visibility, open access articles are freely available online upon publication

- Easy compliance with open access mandates

- You retain copyright and the open access license allows for broad dissemination of your research

- You can freely share your article in repositories and research networks without restrictions

Identification and Marketing
Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal table of contents (TOC), TOC alerts, and marketing. Open access articles highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.

Copyright and Licensing
If you choose to publish open access with Liebert Open Access, you will retain copyright of your article and a creative commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert Publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

At this time we allow authors to choose between the CC-BY, CC-BY-NonCommercial or CC-BY-NonCommercial ShareAlike license. A limited number of journals offer NonCommercial licenses exclusively.

Ordering Open Access
Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Option. If would like to get more information about Liebert Open Option or would like to order open access, please email

Publishing open access includes an article publication charge (APC) and authors are asked to fill out a short Open Option order form.  You can pay by credit card or receive an invoice. Please remember that traditional subscription journals can carry mandatory or optional author fees. The Open Option APC does not cover replace existing publication or author fees.

Publishing biomedical or biotechnology research?
Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. Please visit the journal for more information.

 *Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.

Is your Institution a member of the Liebert Author Advocacy Program?

The Liebert Author Advocacy Program (LAAP) provides valuable membership benefits for OA publication to institutional and funding organizations, and supports global funding mandates.  Authors who are affiliated with LAAP member institutions receive all the valuable benefits of Liebert OA article publication, and more.

For details, and to recommend institutional membership visit: or contact

NIH Public Access Policy: In order to assist our authors who have NIH funding to comply with this policy, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers will deposit the final accepted paper (after copy-editing and proofreading) to PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the authors. Authors need not take any action. The manuscript's public access posting on PMC will occur 12 months after final publication. This service is provided free of charge. Please note that authors may not deposit manuscripts directly to PMC or other sites without permission from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Publishing in Subscription Journals

By signing the copyright transfer statement, authors still retain a set of rights that allow for self-archiving.

Authors may archive their preprint manuscripts (version prior to peer review) at any time without restrictions. Authors may archive their postprint manuscripts (accepted version after peer review) in institutional repositories, preprint servers, and research networks after a 12 month embargo. The 12 month embargo period begins when the article is published online. Postprints must not be used for commercial purposes and acknowledgement must be given to the final publication, and publisher, by inserting the DOI number of the article in the following sentence: “Final publication is available from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers[insert DOI]”. Authors may archive on their personal website without an embargo provided their manuscript is updated with an acknowledgement to the publisher copyright and final published version.

The final published article (version of record) can never be archived in a repository, preprint server, or research network.


Publishing Open Access

Authors that wish to easily comply with funder or institutional open access mandates should consider publishing open access. Liebert Open Access option allows authors to make their research freely available online without restrictions. Additionally, Liebert Open Access option allows authors to retain copyright, archive and share the final published version of their article without restrictions. To publish open access please email or visit Liebert Open Access for more information.

The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them.

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