Information For Authors


  • Scope and Aims
    Brain Connectivity is an international neuroscience journal dedicated to the publication of original reports and scientific reviews concerned with all aspects of anatomical, functional, and causal connections between distinct units within the central nervous system. Articles describing the underlying mechanisms and structure behind brain connections will be given priority. Emphasis will be placed on the following experimental techniques: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), microscopy, and other new and evolving methods as applied to brain connectivity analysis. Submission of multimodal examinations and integrations is encouraged. The journal will consider studies in both human and animal models. Brain Connectivity is an investigational journal, and research reports are strongly recommended to contain experimental data. Three article categories will be included: original manuscripts, communications, and review articles. Several sub-categories under original articles and communications will be considered, including reports of original experimental data, methodological studies, novel data analysis schemes, theoretical data modeling, and descriptions of changes in brain connectivity in health and disease. Reports of original investigations in the areas of neuroscience, neurology, physics, biophysics, computer science, neuroinformatics, mathematics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, developmental biology, genetics, molecular biology, psychiatry, pharmacology, anesthesiology, cell biology, and brain anatomy relevant to the field of brain connectivity will be accepted.


Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract. Prior abstract publications should be described in the form of a footnote to the title. Published manuscripts become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. By submitting a manuscript to the Journal, the author(s) agree(s) to each of these conditions. In addition, the author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership he/she (they) may have in such manuscript to the Journal.


All submissions to the Journal are subject to peer review.  Authors are encouraged, but not required, to supply the names and valid email addresses of three to four individuals who are considered qualified to review the submitted material, as well as the names of individuals whom the authors would prefer not be selected as a reviewer. However, the review selection is ultimately at the discretion of the Editor.


Keywords (Areas of Expertise)

To facilitate the peer review process, select 4-6 keywords from the drop-down list of pre-selected terms when submitting your manuscript.   These keywords will assist in the selection of skilled reviewers in the field for the purposes of peer review.



The Editors:

  • Have complete jurisdiction over the final decision on any given paper.
  • Will recuse him/herself from the decision-making process any on any paper in which he/she is an author;
  • Will remain independent in their decision to accept or reject any given paper;
  • Will preserve the identity of any and all peer reviewers;
  • Will promote the publication of post-publication corrections or retractions after a thorough investigation of the circumstances;
  • Will maintain the highest level of integrity of the peer-review process and will uphold the strictest standards of scientific publishing.


The Journal publishes all accepted papers within 72 hours of acceptance in their unedited, uncorrected format.  It is important to note that the information that is published online, and in all indexing services, is pulled directly from the data that is populated into the fields in Manuscript Central – NOT from the manuscript file – when the paper is originally uploaded to the system for peer review.  Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline, until the next revision of the article is published.  As such, it is critical that authors enter all authors’ names correctly into the system at the time of submission.

The next revision will take place after the corresponding author sees page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher.  Once the alterations are completed, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will then be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.

Please note that the typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 4-8 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.

Preparation of Manuscripts
All submissions must be uploaded to Manuscript Central  ( in Microsoft Word. Please follow these instructions carefully.

Use of English Language

All submissions must be in English.  Appropriate use of the English language is a requirement for review and publication in the Journal.  For authors whose native language is not English, and for those who wish to invest in assistance to improve the compositional quality of their manuscripts, we suggest using a service that can aid in the translation and editing of material into correct and proper academic/business English.  The Publisher offers a paid editing service.  Fees are determined on an individual basis and reflect the length and complexity of the document. Fees are solely the responsibility of the author(s).  Employing this service, or any other editing service, does not imply or guarantee acceptance of any submission. It serves simply to improve the manuscript for proper English grammar and usage, rendering it more presentable for review purposes and potential publication. For more information regarding the Publisher’s editing services, contact

All submissions should be accompanied by a cover letter.  Authors may convey any relevant information they wish to the Editor, but the cover letter must also assert the following:

  • Each author listed on the submission significantly contributed to work;
  • The author listing is complete;
  • No fraudulent or manipulated data was used;
  • All reported data and results are authentic and valid;
  • No content of the submission has been plagiarized.

Title Page
The title (first) page of all manuscripts must contain the following information:

    • Title should not exceed 15-18 words.
    • Names of ALL authors, their institutional affiliations including full postal address; city, state, country name, and email addresses
    • Name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author
    • Running head of 60 characters or fewer (including spaces)
    • Manuscript keywords (search terms): On the title page of the manuscript, include a minimum of three (3), maximum of six (6), search terms that will aid in the discoverability of the article in indexing services and search engines.  These terms may or may not be different from the terms you selected for the peer review process and areas of expertise.  You will be asked to retype these search terms in the submission form when uploading your manuscript.  These keywords will be included in the published article.  If the search terms entered do not match the manuscript, the manuscript will serve as the default.

 An unstructured abstract should accompany every original manuscript, communication, and review article. The abstract should appear on a separate page after the title page. The abstract should be no more than 250 words and should conform to the following guidelines:

    • Do not use proprietary or trade names in the title or abstract
    • The use of the first person should be avoided
    • Clearly summarize the results and conclusions of the work
    • References are not permitted in the abstract


Indicate order of overall article:

    • Title Page
    • Abstract
    • Acronyms page
    • Body (Include main headings:  Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Conclusion)
    • Acknowledgments
    • Disclosure Statement
    • References
    • Figure Captions


• Original Manuscripts:                        4,500–5,000 words
                                                                   Maximum of 10 figures
                                                                   Approximately 50 references

• Communications:                               3,500 Words
                                                                   Maximum of 6 figures
                                                                   Approximately 30 references

• Reviews:                                               7,000–7,500 words
                                                                   No limit on figures
                                                                   Approximately 80-100 references

• Commentaries/Controversies:       Submit abstract via email to the Editor at
                                                          prior to
                                                                   submission to determine if the topic is the 
                                                                   appropriate subject matter for Brain Connectivity.

•  Letters To The Editor(s):               Letters to the Editor(s) are welcomed, but with a 500-word
                                                               limit and no more than one (1) table OR figure, and with
                                                               a maximum of four (4) references.


    • Write the body of the manuscript as clearly and concisely as possible.  
    • To facilitate the review process, the use of sub-sections within main headings is strongly suggested.  All original submissions should include the following main headings: Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Conclusion
    • Adhere to the manuscript category word limits described herein
    • Abstracts, headings, legends, disclosures, and references do not contribute to word count 
    • Number and double space all pages
    • Use Times New Roman or Arial fonts in 12-point type
    • References should be prepared in the name/date format.  Any references cited in text must be included in the reference list, and conversely, all references in the reference section must be cited in text.
  • Acknowledgments
    After the Conclusion(s) portion of the manuscript, include a separate section acknowledging any contributors who did not meet the requirements for authorship and any science writers or corporate employees who participated in the development of the manuscript. Also include acknowledgments of research support for the study.

Disclosure Statement
Immediately following the Acknowledgments section, include a section entitled ‘‘Author Disclosure Statement.’’ This text must be included before the references. In this portion of the manuscript, authors must disclose any commercial associations that might create a conflict of interest in connection with submitted manuscripts. This statement should include appropriate information for EACH author, thereby representing that competing financial interests of all authors have been appropriately disclosed according to the policy of the Journal. It is important that all conflicts of interest, whether they are actual or potential, be disclosed. This information will remain confidential while the manuscript is being reviewed and will not influence the editorial decision.

If no conflicts exist, the authors must state ‘‘No competing financial interests exist.’’

Please see the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at for further guidance.

NOTE: The abstract, figure legends, acknowledgments, disclosure section, and references in the manuscript do not count towards word limits.

The reference section must be double-spaced, and should be arranged in alphabetical order.  More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication (i.e.: 2010a), and should be listed chronologically, beginning with the most recent year. Within text, the citation should be included in parentheses followed by the year of publication. (Ex:  Jones et al, 2009.) The author is responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references.
In all references, use et al. after the sixth author for any references containing more than seven authors. If a reference has seven authors, list all seven.

Journals:  (Abbreviate journal names in accordance with MEDLINE.)

Mueller SG, Schuff N, Yaffe K, Madison C, Miller B, Weiner MW. 2010. Hippocampal atrophy patterns in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  Hum Brain Mapp 31:1339-1347.

Conference Abstracts:

Tropp J. RF Field Penetration as a Function of Quality Factor in Simple Dielectric Resonators. In Proceedings of the 10th Annual Meeting of ISMRM, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2002, p. 912.


Woolsey TA,  Gado MH, Roberts MP. 1998. The Brain Atlas. Valley Stream, NY:  Fitzgerald Science Press. p. 265

(Include volume and/or edition numbers when appropriate.)

Chapter in Book

Koester J, Siegelbaum SA. 2000. The nervous system expresses a rich variety of voltage-gated ion channels. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (eds.) Principles of Neuroscience, 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; p. 159.

(Include volume and/or edition numbers when appropriate.)

Websites:  (Do not include http:// in a website address if www. is present in the URL; include it only if www. is omitted.)

McDonald T.  Hopes common drug will help dementia patients.  Last accessed Nov. 2, 2010.

Unpublished Material:

When a reference is unpublished data, a manuscript in preparation, or a manuscript submitted but not in press, it should be included in parentheses in the body of the text, and not cited in the reference list. Personal communications should also be listed parenthetically in text, and should contain the first initial and last name of the contact, as well as the month and year of the communication. Published manuscripts, and those that have been accepted and are pending publication, should be cited in the reference list.

Preparation of Figures and Legends

Figure Legend Instructions:

    • Include a separate page in the manuscript containing all table and figure legends
    • Prepare legends double-spaced
    • Define all relevant information in figures, including figure part labels, footnotes, abbreviations, acronyms, arrows, and levels of magnification in insets
    • Each figure should have a corresponding figure legend, and should be brief and pertinent

The depiction of data presented in Brain Connectivity is of the utmost importance to our audience.
Please be sure to follow these specific guidelines for submitting figures:

    • Do NOT embed art files into a Word or PDF document. Figures provided in this format cannot be used for production purposes
    • Line illustrations should be submitted at 900 dpi
    • Halftones and color should be submitted at a minimum of 300 dpi
    • To ensure proper print quality, please submit only TIFF or EPS files. JPEG files are for screen representation-quality only and will print very poorly during the printing process
    • Color art must be saved as CYMK—not RGB. (Note: If RGB files are submitted, the files will be converted to CYMK and some color variation will occur. This conversion could result in misinterpretation of data)
    • PowerPoint and Excel figures cannot be uploaded
    • Use 12-point Times New Roman or Arial fonts for any labeling within figures

You will be given directions on how to correct any files which do not pass.
Converting Word or Excel files: Perhaps the best and easiest way to convert Word or Excel files into a format which is suitable for print is to scan them using the below guidelines:
• All files should be scanned at 100% size.
• 300 dpi
• Final color mode: cmyk
• save file as: .tif or .eps


There are associated fees for publishing color art in print and/or online. For more information, please contact
If you need directions on how to convert a Power Point slide to acceptable format go to


Preparation of Tables

  • Number tables consecutively
  • Include a table title for each numbered table.
  • Prepare all tables in one, single Word document (.doc or .docx), with each numbered table beginning on a new page.
  • Do not include tables in the main manuscript text file.
  • Do not embed tables within the text.
  • Use Arabic numerals to number tables.
  • Do not repeat information that is given in the text, and do not make a table for data that can be given in the text in one or two sentences.
  • Define all acronyms used within the body of the table in table footnotes.
  • All other types of table footnotes should be designated using superscript letters, not symbols.
  • Name all table files in English and use only alphanumeric characters. Do not use symbols, dots, lines, or dashes.
  • Table file names should be formatted with first author’s last name and the table number. (Ex: SmithTable1)
  • Upload one table file, containing all tables, under the “Table” file designation.

Chemical  Formulae  and  Mathematical  Equations 
Wherever possible, write mathematical equations  and  chemical  formulae on  a  single  line.  Please submit complex chemical  structures  as figures. Number equations sequentially in Arabic numerals at the right margin.

Please include a list of all abbreviations used in the article. All acronyms and their definitions should be spelled out in a separate list on a separate page immediately after the title page. Acronyms should be defined the first time they are listed in the text. Brain Connectivity discourages the use of unnecessary acronyms. Overuse of acronyms can cause reduced clarity and therefore the use of acronyms should be limited whenever possible.  



Please upload individual files of all manuscript material—do NOT upload a single PDF file containing all text, figure, and table files of your manuscript. Once all individual files are uploaded to Manuscript Central, the system will automatically create a single PDF proof for the peer-review process.



 Patients and Study Participants

All manuscripts must comply with the privacy and confidentiality requirements outlined on the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals website. For more information, visit When articles include reports of studies on human subjects, state in the Methods section that an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approved the study. Authors who do not have formal ethics review committees should follow the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. In the Methods section, state that informed consent was obtained from subjects (specify written or verbal).

The principal author must state that if animals were used experimentally, permission was obtained from the appropriate committee(s), and that the animals were treated humanely and the standards conformed to those of current ethical animal research practices.

In addition, text and photographs should not reveal any identifying information unless it is essenti al for scientific purposes (in which case, consent should be obtained). Masking the subjects’ eyes in photographs is often insufficient to protect their identity.



Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research:  Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research

Documented review and approval from a formally constituted review board (Institutional Review Board or Ethics committee) should be required for all studies involving people, medical records, and human tissues. For those investigators who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. If the study is judged exempt from review, a statement from the committee should be required. Informed consent by participants should always be secured. If not possible, an institutional review board must decide if this is ethically acceptable. This information should be outlined in the cover letter accompanying the submission, and a sentence declaring adherence should be included in the acknowledgment section of the manuscript.

Animal experiments should require full compliance with local, national, ethical, and regulatory principles, and local licensing arrangements.

Definitions of Scientific Misconduct

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers generally follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Scientific Misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.

  •  Authorship Disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist’s contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.

  • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.

  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.

  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research:
    Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.

  • Conflict of Interest:  Nondisclosure of any conflicts, direct or indirect, to the Journal which prevents you from being unbiased constitutes misconduct.

  • Deliberate misrepresentation: of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance the research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.

  • Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another’s work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.

  • Simultaneous Submission:  Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.

Responding to Allegations of Possible Misconduct

The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into an allegation.  As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with associate editors and/or members of the editorial board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or if the allegation is against an editor, an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will arrive at a conclusion as to whether there is enough reasonable evidence that the possibility of misconduct occurred.

When allegations concern authors, the peer review and publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. The investigation will be taken to completion even if the authors withdraw their paper.  In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be replaced in the review process while the matter is investigated.

Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal, and reported to their institution.

If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record.  If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal.

All allegations will be kept confidential.



Upon acceptance of any manuscript, all authors will receive a follow-up email with instructions on how to complete our online Copyright Agreement form.  It is critical to ensure the accuracy of ALL authors’ email addresses when uploading submissions to Manuscript Central to ensure the proper delivery of all email communications.


The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with coauthors to make sure they have completed the online copyright form. Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement of the reason for not releasing the copyright.

Authors are responsible for procuring permissions to reproduce Illustrations or tables taken from other publications, and must be acknowledged by a complete credit line in the legend. [Publisher should provide an example of a credit line here.] The original publisher’s letter of permission should be available for submission to Brain Connectivity if requested by the Editor or the Publisher. A full citation should also be included in the reference list.

Page Proofs
An email containing a link to the PDF file of the page proof is sent to the corresponding author. The proof should be read very carefully and returned within 3 days to the Publisher with the author’s approval and/or corrections.

Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany page proofs, and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after an issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.

Post-Publication Corrections

Any reported errors in published articles will be researched by the authors and/or Editor(s) and addressed appropriately.  If errors are found to have merit, the online version of the article will be corrected, and if deemed appropriate by the Editor, a full correction page will be issued in the next available issue.

Retraction Policy

Articles may be retracted or withdrawn by their authors, academic or institutional sponsor, editor or publisher, due to:

  • scientific misconduct;
  • unsubstantiated, irreproducible, or falsely reported/fabricated data;
  • plagiarism;
  • false representation;
  • other forms of intentional impropriety;
  • widespread error


The Journal and Publisher are dedicated to upholding the strictest standards of scientific publishing and will not tolerate any improprieties.

Brain Connectivity is published 10 times a year by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215, Tel: (914) 740-2100; Fax: (914) 740-2101; Email:; Website:

Our dynamic Author Benefits Program provides you with end-to-end benefits that ensure your hard work pays off and your published manuscript gets the attention it deserves not just upon publication, but permanently.

Liebert Open Access

Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) option

Explore Liebert Open Access

Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?

The Liebert Open Access option enables authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.

The benefits of Liebert Open Access include:

  • High visibility; open access articles are freely available online upon publication
  • You retain copyright with the open access license allowing broad dissemination of your research
  • You can freely share your article in repositories and research networks without restrictions
  • Easy compliance with open access mandates
  • Rigorous editorial and peer-review
  • Targeted email announcement featuring a direct link to article

Identification and Marketing

Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC alerts, and in marketing announcements. Open access articles are highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.

Copyright and Licensing

If you choose to publish with open access, you will retain copyright of your article and a Creative Commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

At this time we allow authors to choose between the CC-BY or CC-BY-NonCommercial license. A limited number of journals offer NonCommercial licenses exclusively.

Ordering Open Access

Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Access. If you would like more information about Liebert Open Access or would like to order open access, please email

Publishing open access includes an article publication charge (APC) and authors are asked to fill out a short open access order form.  You can pay by credit card or receive an invoice to be returned with payment or via bank transfer. Please remember that traditional subscription journals can carry mandatory or optional author fees. The Liebert Open Access APC does not cover or replace existing publication or author fees.

Publishing biomedical or biotechnology research?

Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. For details, please visit the information for authors on the journal website.

 *Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.


Browse journals in the Liebert Open Access portfolio:

NIH Public Access Policy: In order to assist our authors who have NIH funding to comply with this policy, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers will deposit the final accepted paper (after copy-editing and proofreading) to PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the authors. Authors need not take any action. The manuscript's public access posting on PMC will occur 12 months after final publication. This service is provided free of charge. Please note that authors may not deposit manuscripts directly to PMC or other sites without permission from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Publishing in Subscription Journals

By signing the copyright transfer statement, authors still retain a set of rights that allow for self-archiving.

Authors may archive their preprint manuscripts (version prior to peer review) at any time without restrictions. Authors may archive their postprint manuscripts (accepted version after peer review) in institutional repositories, preprint servers, and research networks after a 12 month embargo. The 12 month embargo period begins when the article is published online. Postprints must not be used for commercial purposes and acknowledgement must be given to the final publication, and publisher, by inserting the DOI number of the article in the following sentence: “Final publication is available from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers[insert DOI]”. Authors may archive on their personal website without an embargo provided their manuscript is updated with an acknowledgement to the publisher copyright and final published version.

The final published article (version of record) can never be archived in a repository, preprint server, or research network.


Publishing Open Access

Authors that wish to easily comply with funder or institutional open access mandates should consider publishing open access. Liebert Open Access option allows authors to make their research freely available online without restrictions. Additionally, Liebert Open Access option allows authors to retain copyright, archive and share the final published version of their article without restrictions. To publish open access please email or visit Liebert Open Access for more information.

The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them.

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