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- Blinding: Single Blind
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- Instant Online Option (immediate publication of accepted version): Yes
- Submission Fee: $90.00
- Average time to initial decision: 21 days
About the Journal
Thyroid publishes original studies, reviews, and guidelines on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of thyroid disorders, including those in the fields of neoplasia, autoimmunity, development, genetics, molecular and cell biology, and nutrition.
The Journal will consider original studies and reviews within the following categories:
- Immunology, Autoimmunity, and Graves' Ophthalmopathy
- Iodine and Endemic Goiter
- Pregnancy and Fetal Development
- Thyroid Cancer and Nodules
- Thyroid Dysfunction: Hypothyroidism, Thyrotoxicosis, and Thyroid Function Tests
- Thyroid Economy: Regulation, Cell Biology, and Thyroid Hormone Metabolism and Action
- Thyroid Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
- Thyroid Surgery
Thyroid is the Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) with the editorial office at the ATA Headquarters, 2000 Duke Street, Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314; website: www.thyroid.org.
Manuscript Types and Guidelines
Review and Scholarly Dialog
Brief Reports on Novel Mutations Associated with Inherited Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid considers brief reports on novel mutations associated with genetic thyroid disorders or recurring mutations that provide novel insights into the phenotypic spectrum associated with the disorder.
Case Studies, and Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders
Reports on Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders are only considered if they provide novel mechanistic insights into the underlying pathogenesis or new aspects that impact clinical management.
Editorials and Commentaries
Letters to the Editor
Word limits do NOT pertain to the abstract, disclosure statements, author contribution statements, funding information, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, or references.
All Original submissions must contain:
- An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval (or waiver) statement in the Methods section
- Acknowledgments section (if applicable) after the Conclusion of the manuscript, followed by
- An Author Contribution statement for each listed author, followed by
- An Author Disclosure Statement for each author listed on a submission, even if there are no conflicts to disclose, followed by,
- Funding statement(s), even if there is no funding information to declare.
Authors must confirm that all of the research meets the ethics guidelines, including adherence to the legal requirements of the country where the study was performed.
Institutional Review and Clinical Trials
For clinical studies, experimental subjects should be described in detail and the institutional review and informed consent should be obtained as appropriate. Clinical trials should have prospective and public registration or else they may not be considered for publication. The authors should ascertain that their experimental procedures are in compliance with the guiding principles for the “Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals” published in the Information for Authors of the American Journal of Physiology.
For a Clinical or Basic Original Study, Reviews, and Case Studies, the abstract must be organized into the following four sections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Start each section of the abstract in a new paragraph. The Background section should have one or two sentences regarding the background, followed by one or two sentences that state the objective of the study or the hypothesis that is tested in the study. The Conclusions should not restate the results but rather summarize the major findings and provide the reader with an indication of their importance and how they alter, support, extend, or refute widely held concepts. For Review and Scholarly Dialog articles, the abstract sections are as follows: Background, Summary, and Conclusions. For Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders, the abstract sections are as follows: Background, Patient Findings, Summary, and Conclusions.
Maximum word count for original studies should not exceed 3,000 words. For a Clinical or Basic Original Study and Reviews use the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should state the hypothesis in specific terms and provide a brief background that supports its rationale and importance. Review and Scholarly Dialog articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Review, Summary, and Conclusions. For Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders there should be a brief introduction followed by a section titled Patient(s) (not “Case[s]”) followed by a discussion.
BRIEF REPORTS on novel mutations associated with inherited thyroid disorders
Reports on novel mutations associated with genetic thyroid disorders or recurring mutations that provide novel insights into the phenotypic spectrum should be prepared according to the following guidelines.
- The index subject and family members should be evaluated with appropriate informed consent or/and assent.
- Minimum information on the index subject should include: sex, age at the time of investigation, consanguinity, ethnic background and clinical presentation. The mode of transmission should be reported unless it is a de novo mutation.
- Results from thyroid function testing are mandatory and abnormalities should be validated with a repeat measurement. When available, include relevant ancillary studies.
- The minimum requirement is the study affected and unaffected first-degree relatives; if this is not possible, the reason for not studying family members should be mentioned. Include both clinical data and thyroid function tests.
- Results from thyroid function tests should be as detailed as possible. Include analytical method, reference range, whether the sample was taken with or without treatment, and how long the treatment was stopped prior to the sampling. In case of dynamic testing (e.g. TRH test, T3 suppression test), indicate dose, duration, whether the individual was on any other treatment, and reference range for response.
- Information regarding the identification of the mutation should include the source of DNA or RNA, the method of isolation and mutational analysis. Indicate cDNA and protein change and clarify the numbering of amino acids, for example in the presence of a signal peptide indicate if the numbering refers to the mature molecule or not. For the description of mutations refer to Antonarakis SE. Recommendations for a nomenclature system for human gene mutations. Hum Mutat 1998;11:1-3. When the mutation is not present in the parents of the index subject, haplotype data could be added to support the presence or absence of allele sharing.
- If the mutation is novel and not reported previously, provide evidence that it has not been reported in public databases (e.g. 1000 Genomes, dbSNP, Genome Variant Server) and that it is not a simple polymorphic variant. Provide in silico information on the expected effect of the mutation on protein function reporting scores from the SIFT and PolyPhen-2 algorithms. If possible, there should be data showing that the mutation has functional consequences. If in silico data is not supportive of the latter, in vitro studies should be included. If available, add information about protein structure and function, and interaction with other molecular partners.
Abbreviations and Nomenclature
Abbreviations and nomenclature should follow recommendations of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB; Recommendations on Biochemical and Organic Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology) at https://www.qmul.ac.uk/sbcs/iubmb/ The International System of Units (SI units) is recommended, but conventional units may also be used. In either case, it is desirable to include appropriate conversion factors to aid the reader. The list of abbreviations in the Journal of Endocrinology is generally acceptable in Thyroid.
Novel abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and must be defined when they first appear. Drug names should always be generic. Pedigrees should be drawn according to published standards (see Am J Hum Genet 56:745–752).(1) Human gene names and loci should be written in italicized capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g., PAX8). Mouse genes should be written in italic using sentence case (e.g., Pax8). Protein names are not italicized (e.g., PAX8). For the description of human mutations, refer to Hum Mutat 11:1–3. (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-1004%281998%2911%3A1%3C1%3A%3AAID-HUMU1%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O).(2) When a manuscript that contains novel sequences is accepted, the sequences must be deposited in the appropriate database (such as GenBank), an accession number obtained before the manuscript is sent to the publisher, and the accession number added in a footnote.
1. Bennett RL, Steinhaus KA, Uhrich SB, O’Sullivan CK, Resta RG, Lochner-Doyle D, Markel DS, Vincent V, Hamanishi J. Recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature. Pedigree Standardization Task Force of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:745–752.
2. Antonarakis SE. Recommendations for a nomenclature system for human gene mutations. Hum Mutat 1998;11:1–3.
Thyroid® uses Mary Ann Liebert's Vancouver reference format. Please scroll down to the Reference and Citation Guidelines for details and examples, and a template.
The Paperpal Preflight service is available for this journal. PaperPal Preflight allows authors to check their Original Research manuscripts for common errors prior to submitting a manuscript for consideration. Please note that this does not guarantee that your paper will pass all submission or other checks, nor that it will be considered for review.
The checks are configured for Original Research manuscripts only and may not be applicable to other manuscript types. There may be additional requirements for submission. Please review the full instructions for authors for guidelines.
The basic service is free. PaperPal preflight offers an optional fee-based service that will provide a report showing tracked changes and potential modifications. Please note that if this service is used, a clean copy of the manuscript must be uploaded to the submission system.
There is no obligation to use either the free or paid service. No editorial, review, nor any other decisions will be dependent on its use.
All manuscripts must be submitted through the journal’s ScholarOne Manuscripts site.
All manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (icmje.org). Please consult your specific journal’s requirements for additional information.
All Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journals follow the standards, guidelines, and best practices set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE; publicationethics.org), the International Committee of Journal Medical Editors (ICJME; www.icmje.org), the World Medical Association (WMA); www.wma.net), and the American Medical Association (www.ama-assn.org).
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. recommends that submissions follow standard relevant reporting guidelines. Please consult The Equator Network for more information.
The Paperpal Preflight service is available for most journals. PaperPal Preflight allows authors to check their Original Research manuscripts for common errors prior to submitting a manuscript for consideration. Please note that this does not guarantee that your paper will pass all submission or other checks, nor that it will be considered for review.
There may be additional requirements for submission. Please review the full instructions for authors for guidelines.
All manuscripts must be submitted through the journal’s ScholarOne Manuscripts site. Please refer to the individual journal's instructions for more information and to access the service.
Please check your journal’s requirements for file formatting. Many journals require formatting compliance only on revision; however, unless stated, the file formatting should comply with the following requirements on submission.
The main text file, figure legends, and tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Some journals may accept LaTex. Please consult your individual journal instructions for guidance.
- All file names should be in English and contain only alphanumeric characters.
- Do not include spaces, symbols, special characters, dashes, dots, or underscores.
- Title each file with the type of content contained in the file (e.g., manuscript.doc, tables.doc, FigureLegends.doc, Fig1.tif, SupplementalData.pdf, etc.).
- Submission of high resolution .TIFF or .EPS figure files is preferred. Please upload as individual files.
- Cite figures consecutively in text within parentheses
- Images should not reveal the name of a patient or a manufacturer
- A legend should be provided for each supplied figure.
- All legends should be numbered consecutively.
- Figure legends may be included at the end of the main text file or uploaded as a separate, double-spaced Word file.
- In each legend, provide explanations for any abbreviations or symbols that appear in the figure.
- If the figure is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.
- Tables may be included after the references at the end of the main text file, or uploaded as a single, separate Word file. All tables should be editable.
- Provide a title for each supplied table.
- Cite tables sequentially in text within parentheses.
- Explain abbreviations used in the body of the table in footnotes using superscript letters, not symbols.
- If a table is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.
- Supplemental files should be uploaded as individual files. Most text, photo, graphic, and video formats are accepted. Ensure that patient identities are not revealed.
- Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.
- For journals that publish accepted versions of papers prior to copyediting and typesetting, supplemental files will not be posted with the paper until after production has been completed.
Specific journal requirements will vary, however the general order of elements in each manuscript should be
- Title page* with full manuscript title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a short running title, a denotation of the corresponding author, and a list of 4-6 keywords/search terms,
- Main text without embedded figures or tables and with appropriate section headings, if applicable. Most research papers should be organized as follows: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.
- Authorship confirmation/contribution statement (CRediT format is preferred)
- Author(s’) disclosure (Conflict of Interest) statement(s), even when not applicable,
- Funding statement, even when not applicable,
- Tables included in the text or as a separate document,
- Figure legends at the end of the main text or in a separate Word file,
- Figures uploaded as individual high-resolution files,
- Supplemental files uploaded as individual files.
*Double-blinded journals require a separate title page with the title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a denotation of the corresponding author, author acknowledgements, disclosures, and related identifying information.
Your individual journal may require
- An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval (or waiver) statement and statement of patient consent as a separate paragraph after the methods section,
- Other relevant ethics attestations (see icmje.org for further guidance),
- Data sharing statement,
- Specific abstract and content sections, depending on manuscript type,
- Word count limits, tables/figure limits, and reference format requirements.
Please note that paragaphs should be no longer than 15 lines once typeset.
Upon manuscript submission, the submitting agent will have an opportunity to enter funding/grant information. If funding information is entered correctly, the publisher will deposit the funding acknowledgements from the article as part of the standard metadata to Funder Registry. The entered information should include funder names, funder IDs (if available), and associated grant numbers. Special care should be taken when entering this information to ensure total accuracy. Funding information must also be provided within the manuscript.
Government Funded Research / Funder Requirements
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers adheres to national and international funder requirements.
We comply fully with the open access requirements of UKRI, Wellcome, and NIHR. Where required by their funder, authors retain the right to distribute their author accepted manuscript (AAM), such as via an institutional and/or subject repository (e.g. EuropePMC), under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license for release no later than the date of first online publication.?
Other funders, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, have specific requirements for depositing the accepted version and/or the article of record version of the author manuscript in a repository after an embargo period. Authors funded by these organizations should follow the self-archiving terms and conditions of these separate agreements based on the policies of the specific funding institutions. If you have questions, please contact us for more information.
All submissions are subject to peer review after initial editorial evaluation for suitability. A minimum of two reviews are required for most journals if the manuscript proceeds to the review stage. Final decisions on the manuscript are solely at the discretion of the Editor(s).
Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, in the same form or substantially similar form. Conference abstracts are excluded. If work was presented at a conference, supply the name, date, and location of the meeting as a footnote on the title page of the submission.
Third-party Submissions and Integrity
If a third party is submitting the manuscript, the submitting agent designation must be used, with the identity of the submitting agent disclosed. We reserve the right to reject any manuscript that does not contain this disclosure. The authors are solely responsible for any manuscript submitted on their behalf.
Editors and reviewers must maintain strict confidentiality of manuscripts during the peer-review process. Sharing a manuscript in whole or in part, outside the scope of what is necessary for assessment, is impermissible prior to an accepted manuscript's official publication date. Reviewers are not permitted to contact authors directly.
Sharing of Materials
Authors must honor any reasonable request for materials, methods, or data necessary to reproduce or validate the research findings during peer review unless it violates the privacy or confidentiality of human research subjects.
Conflicts of Interest by the Editor-in-Chief and/or Section Editors
The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors will recuse themselves from participating in the review process of any manuscript in which there is a potential or actual competing interest.
Plagiarism, Peer Review, and Publication Integrity
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is committed to maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process by upholding the highest standards for all published articles. All manuscripts are analyzed and evaluated for plagiarism, peer review integrity, and publication integrity. Manuscript screening may be applied at any point in the process, from submission through post-publication. Plagiarized manuscripts or manuscripts with evidence of publication, image, or peer review misconduct will be rejected immediately. If publication misconduct is identified, we reserve the right to rescind acceptance prior to publication.
Authorship is defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Roles & Responsibilities. Contributors who do not meet all criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged (with permission from the named parties) in the Acknowledgments section with a description of their contribution to the work.
All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier.
One author should be designated as the corresponding author who will be responsible for communication between the authors and the journal editorial office and publisher. This individual will be responsible for ensuring all authors submit copyright forms, coordinating and responding to page proofs, and managing any other necessary contact during the peer review and production processes.
The submission system permits only one author to be identified as the corresponding author of record. However, we recognize that some submissions call for more than one corresponding author to be noted. In such cases, select one author to be the main point of contact for all communications regarding the peer review process of the paper, and on the title page of the manuscript, designate additional co-corresponding authors by including an asterisk after the authors' names in the byline. Include an accompanying footnote on the title page that reads, "*Co-corresponding authors." Please ensure that the title page carries the full affiliation details and email address of any author who should be noted as a corresponding author. If the paper is accepted for publication, the full contact information for all designated co-authors will be listed at the end of the article as per usual journal style.
Authorship Confirmation/Contribution Statement
An authorship contribution statement must be included with the manuscript. We strongly recommend that the authorship contribution statement follow the CRediT Taxonomy guidelines. (https://casrai.org/credit/)
- Conceptualization (Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.)
- Data curation (Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later re-use.)
- Formal analysis (Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data.)
- Funding acquisition (Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.)
- Investigation (Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.)
- Methodology (Development or design of methodology; creation of models.)
- Project administration (Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.)
- Resources (Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.)
- Software (Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.)
- Supervision (Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.)
- Validation (Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.)
- Visualization (Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.)
- Writing – original draft (Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).)
- Writing – review & editing (Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre- or post-publication stages.)>
Author 1: review and editing (equal). Author 2: Conceptualization (lead); writing – original draft (lead); formal analysis (lead); writing – review and editing (equal). Author 3: Software (lead); writing – review and editing (equal). Author 4: Methodology (lead); writing – review and editing (equal). Author 5: Conceptualization (supporting); Writing – original draft (supporting); Writing – review and editing (equal).
Changes in Authorship
Changes in authorship after submission, revision, or acceptance of a paper are generally not permitted, but the editorial leadership recognizes that in rare circumstances, it may be required. The policy for such cases is as follows:
- A request to alter authorship must be made in writing from the corresponding author to the Editor-in-Chief, with a detailed explanation for the request, the nature of the changes, and the names and affiliations of all authors.
- Written approval of all authors named on the manuscript, as well as any individual(s) being added to or removed from the author list must be provided. The Publisher can provide a form for this, if needed.
- Upon receipt of the request and all written approvals of all involved parties, the Editor-in-Chief will consider the request, render a decision, and notify the corresponding author.
- Post-publication changes or alterations to conference abstracts are prohibited.
- If authors are added or removed upon revision submission, without accompanying documentation of the request, the manuscript will be unsubmitted.
Name Change Policy
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. supports the implementation of name changes for reasons including (but not limited to) gender identity, changes to marital status, religious conversion, etc.
Please contact the Director of Production and Editorial to confidentially update your record. Identification or documentation is not required, apart from confirmation that the change is on behalf of yourself (requests cannot be made for other individuals).
Updates will be made to the online versions of the article, but without a formal correction notice and without coauthors being notified.
We recommend authors update ScholarOne and ORCID records with any name changes.
Author Disclosure Statements
Upon submission, authors are required to fully disclose any interests, funding or employment that may inappropriately influence or affect the integrity of the submission. Authors should disclose
- Competing Interests. A competing interest exists when an individual (or the individual's institution) has financial or personal relationships that may inappropriately influence his actions. These competing interests may be potential or actual, financial or other.
- Personal Financial Interests. Stocks or shares in a company that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; consulting fees or other remuneration from an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; patents or patent applications that are owned by or licensed to companies/institutions that may gain or lose value from publication of the article.
- Funding. Research support by organizations that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article. This support includes salary, equipment, supplies, honoraria, reimbursement or prepayment for attending symposia, and other expenses.
- Employment. Recent (within the past 5 years), current, or anticipated employment by an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article.
- Other Competing Interests. Any personal relationship which may inappropriately affect the integrity of the research reported (by an author) or the objectivity of the review of the manuscript (by a reviewer or Editor), for example, competition between investigators, previous disagreements between investigators, or bias in professional judgment.
Authors should identify as their institution(s) the facility where the work was performed and executed. Changes in an author’s affiliation after the work was completed, but prior to the submission or publication of the manuscript should be noted using a superscript asterisk in the author listing and a footnote on the title page indicating “Current Address” and listing the new affiliation. Corrections to affiliations or contact information due to relocation after publication is not permitted.
When reproducing copyrighted material such as figures, tables, or excerpted text, the author(s) of the submitted paper must obtain permission from the original publisher or owner of material and submit it concurrently with the manuscript. The figure or table source must be listed in the reference list. With any copyrighted material, include a footnote with proper attribution (e.g. "Reprinted by permission from Jones et al.") and the appropriate reference. All permissions must be supplied at the time of submission. Authors are responsible for any fees that may be incurred by securing permission to reproduce or adapt material from other published sources.
Institutional Review Board Approvals/Waivers
When reporting research involving human data, authors must document the procedures followed in securing approvals from the responsible institutional and national review committee(s), along with confirmation that the research was completed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in 2013.
An institution without an Institutional Review Board must arrange for an outside/external IRB to be responsible for initial and continuing review of studies conducted at the non-IRB institution. Such arrangements must be documented in writing in the manuscript.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Approval by a responsible review committee does not preclude editors from forming their own judgment whether the conduct of the research was appropriate. Please see https://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf for additional information.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Approval by a responsible review committee does not preclude editors from forming their own judgment whether the conduct of the research was appropriate.
The publisher requires a statement from authors in the Materials and Methods section to confirm that the appropriate ethical approval has been received, that appropriate processes have been followed, and the name of the committee.
Informed consent by patients/participants should always be secured. A statement confirming that informed patient/participant consent was obtained is required in the Materials and Methods section.
If the study is judged exempt from review, a statement from the committee is required in the Materials and Methods section, including, if applicable, documentation of institutionally approved waiver of informed consent.
Ethics of Experimentation
See the following resources for studies involving human fetuses, fetal tissue, embryos, and embryonic cells:
- NIH Grants Policy Statement
- National Conference of State Legislatures Embryonic and Fetal Research Laws
Ethical Treatment of Animals
All peer-reviewed submissions containing animal experiments must comply with local and national regulatory principles and contain a statement in the Materials and Methods section of the main text stating whether national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
Human Subjects: Patient Consent and Release
If applicable, it is incumbent upon the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce any identifiable images of patients. Any identifying information should not be published in descriptions or photographs unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or patients’ parent/guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be submitted. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity cannot be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are de-identified, the manuscript should contain assurances/statements that such changes do not distort scientific meaning.
In keeping with patients' rights of privacy, the Journal does not require the submission of patient consent forms, but instead requires the author(s) to retain and archive all patient consent documentation. Upon submission of a manuscript for review, the authors must make a statement in the cover letter to the Editor/Journal which attests that they have received and archived written patient consent in addition to providing the requisite statement in the manuscript.
We recommend, but do not require, the sharing and archiving of data and any other artifacts that define and support the results stated in a manuscript in a suitable public repository (in accordance with valid privacy, legal, and ethical guidelines). We recommend that a data availability statement be included in the manuscript in the Methods section or as a separate section at the end of the main text file. Describe the location of the data, details on how it can be accessed and any licensing information. If the data is not publicly available or accessible, that information should also be provided.
Datasets should be cited in the reference list.
Important: Please check with your funding agencies to ensure that are you following their data sharing polices. If your funding agency has additional requirements exceeding our policy, you must follow the requirements of your funder.
Update: New NIH policies for data management and sharing are in effect as of January 25, 2023. If your research has NIH funding, please refer to the guidelines for new requirements.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., allows for papers that were previously deposited on preprint servers to be submitted to our journals, with the proviso that the author updates any preprint versions with a link to the final published article. All submissions, even those deposited on preprint servers, are subject to peer review and does not guarantee publication in any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journal.
The submitting author of a paper which was previously deposited to a preprint server should include a disclosure on the title page of the manuscript indicating the name and website of the server and include the DOI number of the preprint.
Referencing/citing non-peer-reviewed material that is found on any preprint server is generally discouraged by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journals, but if it is necessary, the citation must indicate that the content is not officially published in a journal, and can only be found on a preprint server.
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Upon acceptance, authors will receive a link to sign and complete the copyright transfer form (subject to exceptions listed above). Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement for not releasing the copyright.
All accepted manuscripts will go through copyediting, typesetting, figure sizing and placement, author proofing, corrections, revisions (from corrected proofs), online-ahead-of-print release, and lastly, issue assignment. Changes or alterations to a submission are not permitted after acceptance but should be addressed in page proofs.
Instant Online Publication (Just Accepted Program)
Journals in the Just Accepted program (formerly known as Instant Online) publish all accepted papers within 72 hours of receipt of all authors' signed copyright agreement forms in their unedited, uncorrected format on our Just Accepted platform.
The information that is published online, and in all indexing services, is pulled directly from the data that is populated into the fields in ScholarOne Manuscripts™ – NOT from the main text file – when the paper is originally uploaded to the system for peer review. Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline, until the next revision* of the article is published. As such, it is critical that authors enter all authors’ names correctly into the system at the time of submission. Any omissions or errors will remain on our website and in indexing services until the subsequent online version is published.
*The next revision will take place after the corresponding author reviews page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher. Once the alterations are completed, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will then be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.
Please note that the typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 3-6 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.
Journals participating in the Just Accepted program do not post any supplemental files/information until post acceptance steps are completed on the submission.
Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as designated in ScholarOne™ when the manuscript was submitted. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to share the page proofs with co-authors, if desired, and to coordinate all authors' corrections into one proof. The Publisher will not accept corrections from multiple authors/sources.
Author Response to the Galley Proof
The corresponding author is responsible for returning corrected galley proofs. Only corrections directly related to errors in typesetting and/or layout will be allowed. Any requested changes related to content, or that alter the outcome of a study, will require the approval of the Editor, and may require further peer review. If the corresponding author does not respond to page proofs, the manuscript may be delayed in the publication schedule, or published as-is, at the discretion of the Editor. If the corresponding author expects to be unavailable during the time the manuscript is in production, the publisher should be provided with an alternate contact.
Post Publication Corrections
In the event an error is discovered after publication of an article, the corresponding author should submit the correction in writing to the Journal Editorial Office for consideration. After Editor approval, alterations will be made to the online version of the article, and if the errors are significant, an official correction statement will be issued.
- Changes to author affiliations or contact details due to relocation after publication are not permitted.
- Corrections to meeting abstracts will be made only to the online version. The Journal does not issue formal correction statements to meeting abstracts, regardless of the nature of the correction.
- Correction Statements/Errata to published articles that require the reproduction of color figure(s) and/or table(s) may incur additional costs to the author(s).
- Requests for post-publication corrections to funding information will require institutional documentation showing that the funds were to be used for the published work.
Name Change Policy
We recommend authors update ScholarOne and ORCID records with any name changes.
Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany the proofs and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after the issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).
Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following
- Scientific misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Authorship disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist's contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.
- Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
- Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.
- Conflict of Interest: Nondisclosure of any direct or indirect conflicts to the Journal, which prevents you from being unbiased, constitutes misconduct.
- Misrepresentation: Deliberate misrepresentation of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance a research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another's work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Image Manipulation.
- Simultaneous Submission: Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.
- Peer Review Fraud: Individuals who knowingly commit peer review fraud or violate the standard accepted practices of peer review will be reported to their institutions.
Publisher’s Response to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct
The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into any allegation. As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with Associate Editors and/or members of the Editorial Board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will determine if there is enough reasonable evidence that misconduct possibly occurred. Some instances may require the Editor and/or Publisher to report the instance to the authors’ institution for arbitration and/or investigation. The Editor and Publisher will follow the institutions’ findings for resolution.
When allegations concern conflict between authors, the peer review or publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be substituted in the review process while the matter is investigated.
Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal and reported to their institution(s).
If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record. If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal. If the inquiry leads to a lengthy investigation, the Journal will issue an interim Expression of Concern which will identify the concern for readers until a resolution is reached.
Every attempt will be made to keep all allegations confidential.
The journal and its publisher are committed to upholding the proper protocols and established standards of peer review. Published papers found to be in violation of the accepted standard principles of peer review and scientific publishing will be officially retracted from the literature. An official retraction notice explaining in full detail the need for a retraction will be published.
**Any fees collected for an article that is subsequently retracted are non-refundable.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., permits the use of accepted pre-published manuscripts for the sole purpose of pitching to news organizations under strict embargo, and with the approval of and expressed collaboration with the publisher. A watermarked PDF version of the article (not a Word document or any other editable version) may be shared only with named, personal contacts at trusted news sources upon request. News sources must be informed upon delivery of the PDF that the manuscript is for reference-only purposes and can be used only in preparation of their news coverage of the article. It is strictly prohibited to publicly share, post, or otherwise distribute the PDF in any media format. Upon official publication of the article, news organizations must link directly to the published article on the Publisher’s Journal website. To coordinate publication timing and press efforts, please contact the Director of Marketing.
U.S. Sanctioned Countries
The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on US foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. (Source: Office of Foreign Assets Control – Sanctions Program and Information)
Our journal Editors welcome contributions from researchers around the world; however, they are also required to follow sanction laws and regulations. As of August 2020, sanction measures imposed by the United States, United Nations, European Union, and Australia are currently in place against the following countries: Cuba, Crimea, Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Journal editors will treat with caution any submission from a sanctioned country regarding the subject matter and will seek appropriate legal advice from the publisher if necessary.
Papers from sanctioned countries that are submitted to any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journal MUST contain a confirmation statement after the conclusion section of the manuscript which indicates that EACH listed author confirms that their research is supported by an institution that is primarily involved in education or research.
For further questions, please contact our Director of Production and Editorial Operations.
The references for all papers published within the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journal portfolio are I40C compliant and accessible to all readers.
Archiving and Preservation
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., deposits and archives all publications in Portico for long-term digital preservation. Your article will be easily searchable on Google, Google Scholar, and other search engines.
Three versions of the article format versions are referenced in the below policy guidelines:
- Original Submission: The article version that is submitted by the author for consideration, before peer review.
- Accepted Version: The article version that has been formally accepted after peer review, prior to any typesetting for the journal. This is the version accepted by the editor, before proofs, corrections, and typesetting. Also known as the “raw” accepted version of a manuscript.
- Article of Record: This article version is the “version of record” that has been formally copy-edited and typeset and published online epub ahead of print and/or in a journal issue. It is the same version published in the “Online Now” section of the journal website.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers offers authors many options and opportunities to self-archive their work. Self-archiving of work is also referred to, or known as, publishing “Green Open Access”.
Authors can self-archive the original submission version of their article on any website or repository without embargo.
Additionally, authors can self-archive the accepted version of their article on their personal websites or institutional repositories only without embargo. Any archiving of the accepted version for inclusion in subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central (PMC), should follow the requirements of the funder of the work.
Authors are not allowed to publish or self-archive the article of record on any website, social media platform, or repository without permission from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, unless they publish their paper Gold Open Access (OA). Learn more about publishing your work Open Access here.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ society partners or associated affiliates may set self-archiving policies independently, outside of the below mentioned general policies. Authors should refer to the copyright policy of their chosen journal, which can be found on the Journal Collection Page or by contacting the journal editorial office directly. In addition, specific funding organizations have separate agreements and authors should refer to the policies of those specific funding agencies prior to the submission of their manuscript.
Original Submission Version
The original submission version of an article is the author's version that has not been peer reviewed.
This version may be placed on:
- The author's personal website
- The author's company or institutional repository or archive
- Any not-for-profit subject-based preprint servers or repositories
Self-archiving of the original submission version is not subject to an embargo period.
If your submission is formally accepted after peer review in one of our journals, authors must include an acknowledgement of acceptance for publication on all archive sites and, following online publication, authors must include the following notice on the first page:
This is the original submission version (pre-peer review) of the following article: [full citation], which has now been formally published in final form at [Journal Name] at [link to final article using the DOI]. This original submission version of the article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ self-archiving terms and conditions.
The original submission version posted may never be updated or replaced with the article of record version unless the author chooses to publish their paper OA under any of the Creative Commons Licenses available through the publisher. If you are interested in publishing your work OA, please feel free to review our Open Access policies and Licenses or contact us.
Authors may only archive the accepted version of their manuscript on their personal and professional websites, and/or the author’s institutional repository or archive. Any archiving of the accepted version for inclusion in subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central (PMC), should follow the requirements of the funder of the work. This process may impose additional embargo periods.
- The accepted version may be placed on:
- The author's personal website
- The author's company/institutional repository or archive
The accepted version posted must include the following notice on the first page:
This is the accepted version of the following article: [full citation], which has now been formally published in final form at [Journal Name] at [link to final article using the DOI]. This original submission version of the article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ self-archiving terms and conditions.
The accepted version posted may never be updated or replaced with the article of record version unless the author chooses to publish their paper OA under any of the Creative Commons Licenses available through the publisher. If you are interested in publishing your work OA, please feel free to review our Open Access policies and Licenses or contact us.
Article of Record
The article of record version may never be archived on a website, or in a repository or research network, unless published Gold OA under any of the Creative Commons Licenses available through the publisher. If you have questions, please contact us for more information. You can also review our Open Access policies and Licenses.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers adheres to national and international funder requirements. Various funders, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), for example, have specific requirements for depositing the accepted version and/or the article of record version of the author manuscript in a repository after an embargo period. Authors funded by these organizations should follow the self-archiving terms and conditions of these separate agreements based on the policies of the specific funding institutions. If you have questions, please contact us or more information.
Terms and Conditions for Use of All Self-Archived Article Versions
Authors may use either the original submission version or accepted version in the following ways:
- For purposes of your own curriculum or teaching, dissertation, thesis, or book provided that all posted versions include the aforementioned notices, and follow all guidelines and requirements specified.
- To share with researchers, research colleagues, provided that such sharing is not for commercial purposes.
The self-archived submitted and accepted versions may only be used in non-commercial capacities. Individual users may view, print, download, and copy self-archived articles, as well as text and data mine the content conditions for non-commercial and non-promotional research and private study purposes, under the following requirements:
- The authors' moral rights are not compromised and there is clear "attribution" of the author(s) in the shared work.
- The authors’ integrity remains intact; the work should never be altered in such a way that the author's reputation or integrity may be damaged.
- Any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content.
- Self-archived content may never be re-published verbatim in whole or in part in print or online formats.
Most Liebert journals have updated their reference instructions to follow a standard format. Please note that the new formats may differ from reference examples in previously published papers. Templates are available as open-source CSL files, and can be used/imported into most reference managers. Please consult your journal's specific instructions to identify the format that your journal will use.
MAL Journal Reference Styles
Liebert Vancouver Style: Order of Citation
- Reference List: Prepared in sequential order as cited in text.
- In-text Citations: All references must be cited in text in numerical order, set in superscript Arabic numerals outside of any punctuation. Do not set reference numbers in parentheses or brackets. To cite several references at once, use commas to separate non-sequential citations and use dashes to separate sequential citations; do not include spaces. Ex: 3,7,12–15
- Journal titles should follow the abbreviation style of PubMed/Medline.
Style Examples for Reference List:
Type of Reference
Punctuation and Order of Elements in Reference List
Journal article with 1-3 authors
Wang Q, Nambiar K, Wilson JM. Isolating natural adeno-associated viruses from primate tissues with a high-fidelity polymerase. Hum Gene Ther 2021;32(23-24):1439-1449; doi: 10.1089/hum.2021.055 [insert article-specific DOI if available].
Include among the references any articles that have been accepted but have not yet published; identify the name of publication and add "In Press." If the reference has been published online, provide the DOI number in place of the page range.
Journal article with more than 3 authors
Pfister EL, DiNardo N, Mondo E, et al. Artificial miRNAs reduce human mutant Huntington throughout the striatum in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington's disease. Hum Gene Ther 2018;29(6):663–673; doi: 10.1089/hum.2017.199 [insert article-specific DOI if available].
Herzog RW, Zolotukhin S, (eds). A Guide to Human Gene Therapy. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.: Singapore; 2010.
Chapter in an Edited Book
Nicklin SA, Baker AH. Adenoviral Vectors. In: A Guide to Human Gene Therapy. (Herzog RW, Zolotukhin S. eds.) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.: Singapore; 2010; pp. 21-36.
Isaacson W. The Code Breaker: Jennifer Doudna, Gene Editing, and the Future of the Human Race. Simon & Schuster: New York, NY; 2021.
Last name, first/middle initial(s) of author(s) [if available]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. What is Gene Therapy? Silver Spring, MD; 2018. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/cellular-gene-therapy-products/what-gene-therapy [Last accessed: month/date/year].
References that are unpublished (ie: personal communications, emails, letters) are not to be included in the reference list. Instead, insert “Personal communication; [name], date” parenthetically at the point of citation within text.
Using previously published images or tables as a reference
Reused/adapted images, tables, or any published material must be officially cited as a reference in the reference list, and the author(s) of the submitted work must obtain written permission from the copyright holder. Verbal approvals are not acceptable. Any fees associated with the reuse or adaptation of any material is the sole responsibility of the author(s).
Liebert Harvard Style (Name/Date)
- Reference list: Include a complete list of all cited references in alphabetical (last) name/date order
- NOTE: References with the same author list and publication year should be distinguished by using lower case letter after the year of publication (Ex: Jones, 2020a; Jones, 2020b), both in text and in the reference list.
- Citation within text: At the point of citation and in parentheses, include only author surname(s) followed by a comma, then year of publication (Ex: One author: Jones, 2020; Two authors: Jones and Smith, 2021; Three or more authors: Jones et al, 2022).
- Journal titles should follow the abbreviation style of PubMed/Medline.
Style Examples for Reference List:
Type of Reference
Punctuation and Order of Elements in Reference List
Journal article with 1-3 authors
Journal article with more than 3 authors
Chapter in an Edited Book
Nicklin SA, Baker AH. Adenoviral Vectors. In: A Guide to Human Gene Therapy. (Herzog RW, Zolotukhin S. eds.) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.: Singapore, 2010; pp. 21-36.
Using previously published images or tables as a reference
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers has partnered with Editage and Impact Science to provide a dynamic suite of specialized editorial services to ensure your manuscript has the impact it deserves.
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English Language Editing Services
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English-Language Translation with Editing Services
Write your paper in your native language and our expert team will provide you with a translation that meets international publication standards while preserving the science and accuracy of your manuscript. Our translators and editors offer subject-specific expertise and editing skills to ensure that your manuscript conveys every nuance of your research to a global audience.
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All Editage services are fee-based services that authors can opt-into as an added author benefit to amplify the readability, visibility, findability, and shareability of their work.
Open Access enables you to publish your work under a Creative Commons (CC-BY) copyright license in our esteemed hybrid journals. Publishing Open Access makes your article immediately available to read globally, increasing the visibility and potential impact of your research.
Benefits of Publishing Open Access:
- Maximum visibility: open access articles are freely available online upon publication with no subscription needed
- Authors retain copyright, allowing broad dissemination of research
- Articles can be freely shared in repositories and research networks without restrictions
- Automatic submission to PubMed Central and PMC mirror sites, when applicable*
- Open Access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC email alerts, and in marketing announcements
Choosing Open Access
Once your article has been accepted for publication, you will receive an email with information on how to order open access. An Article Processing Charge (APC) is required to cover the cost of Open Access publication and article processing. Once payment is received your article will be published Open Access.
Copyright and Licensing
- The CC BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- The CC BY-NC license permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
*Please note that PubMed Central, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.
You can find out more about additional publication services, browse our portfolio of fully open access journals, read FAQs, and more on our Liebert Open Access page or by contacting firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manuscript Submission Fee $90 USD
Payment of this fee ensures a preliminary assessment of the paper by the Editor(s)-in-Chief, Associate Editor(s), or other members of the editorial board to assess the suitability of the manuscript for the journal. It does not guarantee that the submission will be processed through full peer review, and it does not guarantee acceptance for publication. The submission fee is non-refundable regardless of editorial outcome or decision on any manuscript, or for duplicate/erroneous submissions.
Page Charges - $75 USD per page in final, published version
Color Production optional - $750 USD (no charge to produce figures in greyscale)
Open Access optional APC (Article Processing Charge) - $4,000 USD
Any fees collected or payments associated with a submitted and/or published paper that is subsequently withdrawn and/or retracted for any reason are non-refundable.