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Information For Authors

Thyroid publishes original studies, reviews, and guidelines on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of thyroid disorders, including those in the fields of neoplasia, autoimmunity, development, genetics, molecular and cell biology, and nutrition.

Please note that reports on Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders are only considered if they provide novel mechanistic insights into the underlying pathogenesis or new aspects that impact clinical management.   Thyroid considers short reports on novel mutations associated with genetic thyroid disorders or recurring mutations that provide novel insights into the phenotypic spectrum associated with the disorder.



Manuscripts must be submitted online through the publisher’s online peer-review system, Manuscript Central, using the following URL:

There is a non-refundable $85 per manuscript submission fee to subsidize the cost of manuscript processing. This non-refundable fee is charged regardless of the editorial outcome and/or decision.  We accept Visa/MasterCard for payment by credit card. Please be sure to include the account number, the card expiry date, and the name of the cardholder.

To help defray the cost of printing, the publisher requests that page charges, currently $70 per printed page, be paid by all authors who have funds available from research grants or their institutions.

These payments are not a prerequisite for publication of any manuscript.

Liebert Instant Online (LION)

To enable the release of new scientific findings as quickly as possible, the Journal has a policy of pre-publishing all manuscripts in their unedited format upon acceptance. The papers will have undergone full peer review but will not yet have been copyedited, typeset, or proofread/corrected by the authors. All accepted papers appear online within 72 hours of acceptance as a part of Liebert Instant Online (LION).

Following its appearance on LION, the paper will progress through the normal production process, including author correction of galley proofs and online publication of the final edited and typeset manuscript ahead of print.

It is essential to note that, as part of the LION program, the data that is published instantly online after acceptance – and in Medline – is pulled directly from the information that was populated into the fields in Manuscript Central upon submission not as listed in the manuscript Word document.   Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline/PubMed, until the next revision of the article is published.  It is therefore critically important to submit the correct names and email addresses of all authors under the "my authors" section when uploading your manuscript. This author list is what will be used for the Journal’s LION program and its initial listing on PubMed.

No errors appearing on our website, or in Medline, can be corrected until the subsequent revision is published.

The next revision will take place after the corresponding author reviews the page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher.  Once all alterations are made, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.

The typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 4-8 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.

Peer Review. Regular articles, solicited and unsolicited reviews, and letters to the editor will be peer-reviewed by the editor, members of the Editorial Board, and ad hoc reviewers. Thyroid will accept original manuscripts that contain material that has not been reported elsewhere, except as an abstract of no more than 350 words. Prior abstract presentations should be described as a footnote to the title. Submissions must be accompanied by a cover letter requesting evaluation for publication in Thyroid. The authors must confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to Thyroid and is not submitted, in press, or published elsewhere. They must also confirm that all the research meets the ethics guidelines, including adherence to the legal requirements of the country where the study was performed. The authors are encouraged to suggest names of appropriate reviewers and may also request that a particular individual not serve in that capacity.

Institutional Review and Clinical Trials. For clinical studies, experimental subjects should be described in detail and the institutional review and informed consent should be obtained as appropriate. Clinical trials should have prospective and public registration or else they may not be considered for publication. The authors should ascertain that their experimental procedures are in compliance with the guiding principles in the “Care and Use of Animals” published in the Information for Authors of the American Journal of Physiology.

Acceptance for Publication
. Once the peer-review process has been completed, the authors may be invited to submit one or more revisions. Invitation to submit a revision does not indicate that the revised manuscript will be accepted for publication. Manuscripts will be published if they are accepted for publication by the editor-in-chief, if the submitted information is valid, if guidelines for ethical conduct of research, permissions, and acknowledgment of non-original work are received, and if the publisher’s criteria for publication are met, which includes also assignment of copyright.

Authors’ Responsibility: Originality/Permissions
. The authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce figures, tables, and text from previously published material. Written permission must be obtained from the original copyright holder (generally the publisher, not the author or editor) of the journal or book concerned. An appropriate credit line should be included in the figure legend, table footnote, or text, and full publication information should be provided in the reference list. Written permission must be obtained from the author of any unpublished material cited from other laboratories, and it should accompany the manuscript. Any permission fee or cost levied by other publishers and/or authors is the sole responsibility of the author(s) submitting material to Thyroid.


Thyroid requires using Word for the preparation of the manuscript file (MS file). Do not submit text files as PDF files. Use double-spaced format with standard font size 12. Avoid complex formatting such as columns. Use the “Tab” key at the start of a paragraph rather than the paragraph indent feature. The entire document should be paginated and all lines should be numbered throughout the entire manuscript.

The order of appearance of elements of the MS file is (1) title page(s), (2) abstract, (3) main body, (4) acknowledgments and disclosures, (5) name and address of corresponding author, (6) references, and (7) tables. (The Journal’s standard rules for Abbreviations and Nomenclature are discussed later.)

Title Page
. This should include (1) the title of the article, (2) all authors’ full names, (3) all authors’ highest-earned academic degrees, (4) all authors’ complete affiliations, and (5) all authors’ full contact information, including e-mail addresses. (Do not use abbreviations in the title of the manuscript.)

Below the author information, include the running title and at least five key words for indexing.

. Abstracts are required for all manuscripts except Letters to the Editor, Editorials, News, and Commentary. In general, abstracts should not exceed 350 words. Do not cite references in the abstract. Abbreviations can be used but should be defined in the abstract. For a Clinical or Basic Original Study the abstract must be organized into the following four sections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Start each section of the abstract in a new paragraph. The Background section should have one or two sentences regarding the background, followed by one or two sentences that state the objective of the study or the hypothesis that is tested in the study. The Conclusions should not restate the results but rather summarize the major findings and provide the reader an indication of their importance and how they alter, support, extend, or refute widely held concepts. For Reviews or Scholarly Dialog the abstract sections are as follows: Background, Summary, and Conclusions. For Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders the abstract sections are as follows: Background, Patient Findings, Summary, and Conclusions.

Main Body. The main body of the text should follow the abstract, followed by a page break. For a Clinical or Basic Original Study and for Case Studies use the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should state the hypothesis in specific terms and provide a brief background that supports its rationale and importance. Reviews and Scholarly Dialog should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Review, Summary, and Conclusions. For Patients with Remarkable Features or Rare Disorders there should be a brief introduction followed by a section titled Patient (not “Case”) followed by a discussion.

Acknowledgments. This section is optional and can be used to recognize any source of institutional or governmental funding for your research, or to thank colleagues whose assistance impacted your article.

Disclosure Statement. Immediately following the Acknowledgments section, a section entitled “Author Disclosure Statement” must be included. This text must be part of your MS file.

In this portion of the manuscript, the authors must disclose any commercial association that might create a conflict of interest in connection with submitted manuscripts. This statement should include appropriate information for each author, thereby representing that competing financial interests of all authors have been appropriately disclosed according to the policy of the journal. It is important that all conflicts of interest, whether they are actual or potential, be disclosed. This information will remain confidential while the manuscript is being reviewed and will not affect the editorial decision.

Please see the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at for further guidance. If no conflicts exist, the authors must state, “No competing financial interests exist.”

References. The references should include all author names. Cite references in text as consecutive numbers in parentheses, e.g., (11). The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references and should be reminded that inaccurate references are highly frustrating to the reader, the cited author, and indexing services. If you are using EndNoteTM Reference ManagerTM software, use the Output Styles for Thyroid. Standard abbreviations found in Medline should be used for journal names.  The format for references is as follows:

Journal article
: Robenshtok E, Fish S, Bach A, Domínguez JM, Shaha A, Tuttle RM 2012 Suspicious cervical lymph nodes detected after thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer usually remain stable over years in properly selected patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:2706–2713.

Book: American Psychiatric Association 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. American Psychiatric Association Press, Washington.

Book chapter
: Atkins F, Van Nostrand D 2006 Radioiodine whole body imaging. In: Wartofsky L, Van Nostrand D (eds) Thyroid Cancer: A Comprehensive Guide to Clinical Management, 2nd edition. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 133–151.

Proceedings: Lavilla S, González-López JJ, Larrosa MN, Bartolomé RM, Prat G 2008 Prevalence of the quinolone-modifying enzyme aac(6′)-Ib-cr in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacterial isolates in Barcelona. Abstract presented at the 18th Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), Barcelona, Spain, April 19–22. Abstract no. P1523.

Abstract: Scacheri P, Crabtree J, Kennedy A, Swain G, Ward J, Marx S, Spiegel A, Collins F 2006 V804 RET mutation in MEN2A: first report. J Int Med 255:712 (abstract).

: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2007 Practice Guidelines in Oncology—Thyroid Carcinoma v.2. Available at Accessed December 15, 2008.

Tables. Each table should appear on its own page. Tables should not contain data that can be given in the text in one or two sentences. There should be enough information in each table such that it can be understood independently of the text. The most important details of experimental conditions can be included in the table footnotes, and the reader can be referred to the Methods section for additional information. If the tables contain important information on methodology, there should be a brief reference in the Methods section directing the reader to the table containing the information.

Figure Legends

Each supplied figure requires a figure legend.  All legends should be prepared double spaced, numbered consecutively, and supplied in one Word document (not as individual Word files).  Do not include figure legendds in the main text file.

Figures should be numbered in the order cited in the text.

BRIEF REPORTS on novel mutations associated with inherited thyroid disorders:

Reports on novel mutations associated with genetic thyroid disorders or recurring mutations that provide novel insights into the phenotypic spectrum should be limited to 750 words, 4 references, and 1 figure or table.


1. The index subject and family members should be evaluated with appropriate informed consent or/and assent.


2. Minimum information on the index subject should include: sex, age at the time of investigation, consanguinity, ethnic background and clinical presentation. The mode of transmission should be reported unless it is a de novo mutation.


3. Results from thyroid function testing are mandatory and abnormalities should be validated with a repeat measurement. When available, include relevant ancillary studies.


4. The minimum requirement is the study affected and unaffected first-degree relatives; if this is not possible, the reason for not studying family members should be mentioned. Include both clinical data and thyroid function tests.


5. Results from thyroid function tests should be as detailed as possible. Include analytical method, reference range, whether the sample was taken with or without treatment, and how long the treatment was stopped prior to the sampling. In case of dynamic testing (e.g. TRH test, T3 suppression test), indicate dose, duration, whether the individual was on any other treatment, and reference range for response.


6. Information regarding the identification of the mutation should include the source of DNA or RNA, the method of isolation and mutational analysis. Indicate cDNA and protein change and clarify the numbering of amino acids, for example in the presence of a signal peptide indicate if the numbering refers to the mature molecule or not. 

For the description of mutations refer to Antonarakis SE 1998 Recommendations for a nomenclature system for human gene mutations. Hum Mutat 11(1): 1-3. When the mutation is not present in the parents of the index subject, haplotype data could be added to support the presence or absence of allele sharing.


7. If the mutation is novel and not reported previously, provide evidence that it has not been reported in public databases (e.g. 1000 Genomes, dbSNP, Genome Variant Server) and that it is not a simple polymorphic variant. Provide in silico information on the expected effect of the mutation on protein function reporting scores from the SIFT and PolyPhen-2 algorithms. If possible, there should be data showing that the mutation has functional consequences. If in silico data is not supportive of the latter, in vitro studies should be included.  If available, add information about protein structure and function, and interaction with other molecular partners.


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR(S): Letters to the Editor(s) are welcomed, but with a 500 word limit and no more than one (1) table OR figure, and with a maximum of four (4) references.  Letters to the editor can be submitted in response to a recently published article in Thyroid or to highlight relevant observations related to thyroid disorders. They should not be a format to present the authors’ unpublished work. 


Figure or Image Files. Each figure or image should be submitted as a separate file in a .tif or .eps format. They should be numbered in the order cited in the text.  Please name figure and table files with the last name of the first author.  (e.g. SmithFig1).  Do not include any symbols or puncutation within the file name.

Figures and images should not show the name of a manufacturer or reveal patients’ names. Please keep in mind that the figures will be reduced, so do not submit large figures/graphs that contain small type, as the text within the figure will not be readable after reduction.


Please follow these instructions when preparing figure files for uploading.

  • Line illustrations must be submitted at 900 dpi.
  • Halftones and color photos should be submitted at a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • Power Point files cannot be uploaded.
  • Save art as either TIFF or EPS files. Avoid submitting JPEG or PDF files.
  • Color art must be saved as CMYK, not RGB.
  • Color illustrations can be printed in the journal, with a subsidy from the author(s).

If you need directions on how to convert a Power Point slide to acceptable format, go to


Please do not upload a single PDF containing all text, image, and table files. Upload individual files of all manuscript material. Once all individual files are uploaded on to Manuscript Central, the system will automatically create a single PDF proof for you and for the peer-review process.


Abbreviations and nomenclature should follow recommendations of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB; Recommendations on Biochemical and Organic Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology) at The International System of Units (SI units) is recommended, but conventional units may also be used. In either case, it is desirable to include appropriate conversion factors to aid the reader. The list of abbreviations in the journal Endocrinology is generally acceptable in Thyroid. Novel abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and must be defined when they first appear. Drug names should always be generic. Pedigrees should be drawn according to published standards (see AJHG 56:745–752).* Human gene names and loci should be written in italicized capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g., PAX8). Mouse genes should be written in italic using sentence case (e.g., Pax8). Protein names are not italicized (e.g., PAX8). For the description of human mutations refer to, Hum Mutat 11:1–3. ( fulltext/5001291/PDFSTART). †  When a manuscript that contains novel sequences is accepted, the sequences must be deposited in the appropriate database (such as GenBank), an accession number obtained before the manuscript is sent to the publisher, and the accession number added in a footnote.

* Bennett RL, Steinhaus KA, Uhrich SB, O’Sullivan CK, Resta RG, Lochner-Doyle D, Markel DS, Vincent V, Hamarishi J 1995 recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature. Pedigree Standardization Task Force of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. AJHG 56:745–752.

Antonarakis SE; Nomenclature Working Group 1998 Recommendations for a nomenclature system for human gene mutations.  Hum Mutat 11:1–3.


The online submission process requires filling out and checking off menu-driven forms and uploading files. The final PDF of the manuscript reviewed by reviewers and editors is generated from multiple sources, including files uploaded and information entered on the Web by the authors.

All manuscripts, regardless of category or type, must be submitted online using the following URL: thyroid

First-time authors should register and obtain a username and password that provides access to their Author Center for present and future manuscript submissions. Once logged in to the Author Center, click on the “Submit a Manuscript” link to submit a new manuscript.

First screen: Select the type of manuscript that you consider best fits your manuscript. Occasionally, the editor will recommend a change in manuscript type based on the manuscript’s content and the journal’s format. Copy the title, running head, and abstract from your main text file(s) and paste them into the appropriate fields. If the type of manuscript you are submitting does not require an abstract (Editorials, Commentary, and Letters), enter “No abstract required.” Finally, check if you are submitting the manuscript on your own behalf and that of your coauthors, or if you are submitting the manuscript on the authors’ behalf.
Second screen: Gives an option for assigning keywords to the manuscript.
Third screen: Enter the authors’ names, e-mail, institution, and address.
Fourth screen: Provides an option to list preferred and nonpreferred reviewers. The authors are encouraged to suggest names of appropriate reviewers, particularly if their manuscript is in a very specialized area or one not often featured in Thyroid.
Fifth screen: For entering a cover letter and manuscript information. Answer all questions on this page.
Sixth screen: Used to upload the MS file and the figure and image files.
Seventh screen: Like the earlier screens, it is menu driven. It provides an opportunity to review prior entries and flags required fields for which data were not provided. It concludes the option to submit the manuscript.


The responses to reviewers and editors should be included in the cover letter, not in a separate file. It is important that the responses include statements regarding what changes were made in the revised manuscript. If the authors do not think that a change is required, it should be indicated. If the revision is submitted in Word®, use the Track Changes feature in the Tools menu to show the changes; otherwise, highlight the changes. If there is no change in the number of figures or images and their order in the manuscript does not change, the previously submitted files are still valid and can be retained in the revision, but check to see if the labeling of figure files is still valid. If newer versions of tables and/or figures need to be uploaded, please delete old files from previous versions of the manuscript.


Proofs are generally prepared soon after manuscripts are accepted for publication. Almost all original articles, reviews, scholarly dialog, case studies, remarkable patients, and most letters will be sent for online ahead-of-print publication (EPub) shortly after the proof has been approved by the author, editor, and publisher.


Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany page proofs, and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after an issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate..


Thyroid is published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215. Telephone: (914) 740-2100; Fax: (914) 740-2101; e-mail:; website:

Thyroid is the Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) with the editorial office at the ATA Office, 6066 Leesburg Pike, Suite 550, Falls Church, VA; website:

Our dynamic Author Benefits Program provides you with end-to-end benefits that ensure your hard work pays off and your published manuscript gets the attention it deserves not just upon publication, but permanently.

Liebert Open Access

Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) option

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Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?

The Liebert Open Access option enables authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.

The benefits of Liebert Open Access include:

  • High visibility; open access articles are freely available online upon publication
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Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC alerts, and in marketing announcements. Open access articles are highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.

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If you choose to publish with open access, you will retain copyright of your article and a Creative Commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

At this time we allow authors to choose between the CC-BY or CC-BY-NonCommercial license. A limited number of journals offer NonCommercial licenses exclusively.

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Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Access. If you would like more information about Liebert Open Access or would like to order open access, please email

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Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. For details, please visit the information for authors on the journal website.

 *Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.


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NIH Public Access Policy: In order to assist our authors who have NIH funding to comply with this policy, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers will deposit the final accepted paper (after copy-editing and proofreading) to PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the authors. Authors need not take any action. The manuscript's public access posting on PMC will occur 12 months after final publication. This service is provided free of charge. Please note that authors may not deposit manuscripts directly to PMC or other sites without permission from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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Authors may archive their preprint manuscripts (version prior to peer review) at any time without restrictions. Authors may archive their postprint manuscripts (accepted version after peer review) in institutional repositories, preprint servers, and research networks after a 12 month embargo. The 12 month embargo period begins when the article is published online. Postprints must not be used for commercial purposes and acknowledgement must be given to the final publication, and publisher, by inserting the DOI number of the article in the following sentence: “Final publication is available from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers[insert DOI]”. Authors may archive on their personal website without an embargo provided their manuscript is updated with an acknowledgement to the publisher copyright and final published version.

The final published article (version of record) can never be archived in a repository, preprint server, or research network.


Publishing Open Access

Authors that wish to easily comply with funder or institutional open access mandates should consider publishing open access. Liebert Open Access option allows authors to make their research freely available online without restrictions. Additionally, Liebert Open Access option allows authors to retain copyright, archive and share the final published version of their article without restrictions. To publish open access please email or visit Liebert Open Access for more information.

The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them.