- Manuscript Submission Site: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/astrobiology
- Editorial Office Contact: email@example.com
- Support Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Journal Model: Hybrid (Open Access Option)
- Blinding: Single Blind
- File formatting requirement stage: On revision. Format neutral on original submission.
- Instant Online Option (immediate publication of accepted version): No
- Submission Fee: None
- Average time to initial decision: 45 days
About the Journal
Astrobiology brings together research scientists from around the world to test hypotheses and methodologies, and advance theories with regard to the origins of life, the search for life, our understanding of the distribution and evolution of life, and the ways in which life interacts with its environment. Topics included in this multidisciplinary science are discussed in articles by Morrison (2001) in Astrobiology Volume 1, Issue 1; Des Marais et al. (2003) in Astrobiology Volume 3, Issue 2; and Des Marais et al. (2008) in Astrobiology Volume 8, Issue 4, available at www.liebertpub.com/ast. Astrobiology also welcomes research articles in fundamental space biology, that is, articles that discuss the responses of terrestrial life when exposed to conditions (such as microgravity and enhanced radiation) that would apply beyond Earth. Such research is basic to understanding the ability of Earth life to move beyond its planet of origin.
Original scientific contributions that further an understanding of any aspect of astrobiology and space biology, including relevant observational, experimental, and theoretical investigations, will be considered for publication.
Manuscript Types and Guidelines
Reviews and Invited Mini-Reviews
News & Views
Letters to the Editor
Word limits do NOT pertain to the abstract, disclosure statements, author contribution statements, funding information, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, or references.
Astrobiology welcomes format-neutral manuscripts for first-time submissions. Newly submitted manuscripts will not be un-submitted for formatting issues. However, after the initial peer review process, revised submissions must follow correct journal formatting and file guidelines, as described below in the Instructions for Authors. Please note that there are certain compulsory elements (ie: IRB approvals, author disclosures, etc.) for all new submissions. Manuscripts submitted without this information will be un-submitted and the submitting author will be asked to add the required components.
Description of Manuscript Types
Research Articles- Research Articles should describe results of observational, experimental, and computational approaches related to astrobiology. Articles that describe rigorous tests of mission-relevant (e.g., field, laboratory, orbital, spectral) life-detection instruments are encouraged.
Rapid Communications- A Rapid Communication for rapid publication (~4 months) should communicate timely scientific or methodological information in the field.
Reviews- Reviews should be a selective, though balanced, representative compilation of previously published information assembled for the purpose of analyzing and reinterpreting it to reveal new insights and advance science. Such articles should not merely reiterate previously published data. Reviews are subject to the same review procedures as Research Articles. Authors interested in contributing Reviews and Mini-Reviews should contact Review Article/Senior Editor Lewis Dartnell.
Invited mini-reviews- Mini-Reviews are generally invited by the editors, but unsolicited manuscripts will be considered.
Hypothesis Articles- Hypothesis Articles should communicate succinctly the basis of the author’s hypothesis to encourage discussion and creative hypothesis testing by members of the scientific community. The hypothesis must be reasonably testable. In particular, philosophical and semantic discussions, speculations on the sociology of aliens, and the ramifications for life, if the laws of physics differed from the observed ones, are beyond the scope of the Journal. Astrobiology is an inappropriate venue for new physics/biology/chemistry, that is, modifications to widely accepted fundamental laws of physics/biology/chemistry. Authors should contact the Hypothesis Article/Senior Editor Norman Sleep for questions regarding the appropriateness of their article’s topic.
Forum Articles- Forum Articles are essays about policy issues related to astrobiology science and missions. Examples of policy issues include planetary protection, priorities between missions, protocol for announcing a positive response to a SETI signal, and encouraging participation of women and minorities, etc. In unusual cases, a short commentary on a previous Forum Article and the original authors’ reply will be published. Authors should contact the Forum Article/Deputy Editor Chris McKay for questions regarding the appropriateness of their article's topic.
Education Articles: Education Articles should fall into one of two areas of science education of interest to scientists and educational researchers: data-driven, research-based papers that evaluate the intended impact of astrobiology education programs (IRB approval or exemption required) and topical articles designed to generate dialogue and professionally develop effective educators within the astrobiology community. Inquiries about the appropriateness of a manuscript can be directed to Education Editor Daniella Scalice.
Commentaries- Astrobiology in the Real World commentaries discuss the challenges and impacts beyond the current perspectives associated with the long-standing principles and community goals of the international astrobiology community (e.g., interdisciplinarity, stewardship, and societal interests and relevance). A selection of timely responses to commentaries that encourage dialogue across the disciplines, particularly where divergent or strong opinions arise from the community, will also be published. Authors interested in contributing unsolicited commentary pieces should contact Senior Editor Margaret Race.
News and Views- The News and Views section of the journal may contain reports and discussion of active mission findings, reader’s comments and author’s replies regarding published contributions, and other news of interest—such as conference and working group reports and white papers—to the general astrobiology readership. Comments about articles in Astrobiology should be written only to clarify matters of scientific content. Authors of the articles under discussion will be invited to write a brief reply. Both comments and replies are subject to editorial review. The commenter and replier will have the opportunity to see each other’s responses prior to publication in the Journal. Authors should send comments and replies to the Managing Editor Lawrence Cady.
Book Reviews- Book Reviews are generally invited by the editors, but unsolicited reviews will be considered. Ideas for books to be reviewed are welcome and should be sent to Book Review/Senior Editor Russell Shapiro
An EndNote Template is available.
All references should be cited by author(s) and date within the text [e.g.: Its goal is to study the subsurface of Mars, to characterize mineralogy and ices (De Sanctis et al., 2017)]. If there are three or more authors, use an italicized “et al.” notation after the first author’s name [e.g.: (Cady et al., 2019)]. If more than one article by the same author(s) in the same year is cited, use a lowercase letter designation to indicate the individual article [e.g.: (Smith, 2020a)]. Use the same designation in the reference list. Multiple citations in a parenthetical list should be separated by semicolons and ordered by date, oldest first. Multiple citations with the same date should be ordered alphabetically by first author. The reference list should be double spaced and in alphabetical order at the end of the article. For each reference, include the first three authors followed by et al. and the complete title of the cited article. Use journal abbreviations as provided by PubMed/Medline.
If references to personal communications or unpublished data are used, they are not to be in the list of references. They should be referred to in the text in parentheses: (AB Jones, personal communication). Include among the references any articles that have been accepted but have not yet published; identify the name of publication and add "In Press." If the reference has been published online, provide the DOI number in place of the page range.
Sample style for references:
Schmieder M, Kring DA. Earth's impact events through geologic time: a list of recommended ages for terrestrial impact structures and deposits. Astrobiology 2020;20:91-141.
Impey C, Lunine J, Funes J, eds.Frontiers of Astrobiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2012.
Chapter in a book:
Hode T, Cady SL, von Dalwigk I, Kristiansson P. Evidence of ancient microbial life in an impact structure and its implications for astrobiology – a case study. In From Fossils to Astrobiology: Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures, edited by J. Seckbach and M. Walsh, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology Book Series, Volume 12. Springer, Dordrecht, 2009, pp 249–273.
El-Maarry MR, Black SR, Hynek BM, et al. Testing operational strategies for a potential Mars helicopter using a commercial drone [abstract 2326]. In 49th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference Abstracts, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX, 2018.
Hand KP, Murray AE, Garvin JB, et al. Report of the Europa Lander Science Definition Team. 2017. Available online at https://europa.nasa.gov/resources/58/europa-lander-study-2016-report/
Sample Collection Permits and Use
Authors should confirm that they complied with all sample collection permit and use requirements and include the full name of the issuing authority, which should be acknowledged in the manuscript.
Astrobiology individualizes each issue by featuring a distinctive cover. Authors and scientific illustrators are encouraged to submit for consideration low-resolution versions of their figures and artwork to S.L. Cady, e-mail: email@example.com. Figures chosen for publication must meet the guidelines for high-resolution manuscript figures, but with a print size of 21.528 cm. A figure caption that explains succinctly the content of the cover art and acknowledges the contributor must be provided at the time of submission.
All manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (icmje.org). Please consult your specific journal’s requirements for additional information.
All Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journals follow the standards, guidelines, and best practices set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE; publicationethics.org), the International Committee of Journal Medical Editors (ICJME; www.icmje.org), the World Medical Association (WMA); www.wma.net), and the American Medical Association (www.ama-assn.org).
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. recommends that submissions follow standard relevant reporting guidelines. Please consult The Equator Network for more information.
Specific journal requirements will vary, however the general order of elements in each manuscript should be
- Title page* with full manuscript title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a short running title, a denotation of the corresponding author, and a list of 4-6 keywords/search terms,
- Main text without embedded figures or tables and with appropriate section headings, if applicable. Most research papers should be organized as follows: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.
- Authorship confirmation statement,
- Author(s’) disclosure (Conflict of Interest) statement(s), even when not applicable,
- Funding statement, even when not applicable,
- Tables included in the text or as a separate document,
- Figure legends at the end of the main text or in a separate Word file,
- Figures uploaded as individual high-resolution files,
- Supplemental files uploaded as individual files.
*Double-blinded journals require a separate title page with the title, all contributing authors’ names and affiliations, a denotation of the corresponding author, author acknowledgements, disclosures, and related identifying information.
Your individual journal may require
- An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval (or waiver) statement and statement of patient consent as a separate paragraph after the methods section,
- Other relevant ethics attestations (see icmje.org for further guidance),
- Data sharing statement,
- Specific abstract and content sections, depending on manuscript type,
- Word count limits, tables/figure limits, and reference format requirements.
Please check your journal’s requirements for file formatting. Many journals require formatting compliance only on revision; however, unless stated, the file formatting should comply with the following requirements on submission.
The main text file, figure legends, and tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Some journals may accept LaTex. Please consult your individual journal instructions for guidance.
- All file names should be in English and contain only alphanumeric characters.
- Do not include spaces, symbols, special characters, dashes, dots, or underscores.
- Title each file with the type of content contained in the file (e.g., manuscript.doc, tables.doc, FigureLegends.doc, Fig1.tif, SupplementalData.pdf, etc.).
- Submission of high resolution .TIFF or .EPS figure files is preferred. Please upload as individual files.
- Cite figures consecutively in text within parentheses
- Images should not reveal the name of a patient or a manufacturer
- A legend should be provided for each supplied figure.
- All legends should be numbered consecutively.
- Figure legends may be included at the end of the main text file or uploaded as a separate, double-spaced Word file.
- In each legend, provide explanations for any abbreviations or symbols that appear in the figure.
- If the figure is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.
- Tables may be included after the references at the end of the main text file, or uploaded as a single, separate Word file. All tables should be editable.
- Provide a title for each supplied table.
- Cite tables sequentially in text within parentheses.
- Explain abbreviations used in the body of the table in footnotes using superscript letters, not symbols.
- If a table is taken from a copyrighted publication, permission must be secured by the author(s) and supplied at the time of submission with appropriate credit listed in the legend. Permissions and associated fees are the responsibility of the author.
- Supplemental files should be uploaded as individual files. Most text, photo, graphic, and video formats are accepted. Ensure that patient identities are not revealed.
- Supplemental Information will not be copyedited or typeset; it will be posted online as supplied.
- For journals that publish accepted versions of papers prior to copyediting and typesetting, supplemental files will not be posted with the paper until after production has been completed.
Upon manuscript submission, the submitting agent will have an opportunity to enter funding/grant information. If funding information is entered correctly, the publisher will deposit the funding acknowledgements from the article as part of the standard metadata to Funder Registry. The entered information should include funder names, funder IDs (if available), and associated grant numbers. Special care should be taken when entering this information to ensure total accuracy. Funding information must also be provided within the manuscript.
Government Funded Research / Funder Requirements
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., adheres to national and international funder requirements. Various funders, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), have specific requirements for depositing the accepted version and/or the article of record version in a repository after an embargo period. Authors funded by these organizations should follow the self-archiving terms and conditions of these separate agreements based on the policies of the specific funding institutions. If you have questions, please contact us for more information.
All submissions are subject to peer review after initial editorial evaluation for suitability. A minimum of two reviews are required for most journals if the manuscript proceeds to the review stage. Final decisions on the manuscript are solely at the discretion of the Editor(s).
Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that they have neither been published, nor are under consideration for publication elsewhere, in the same form or substantially similar form. Conference abstracts are excluded. If work was presented at a conference, supply the name, date, and location of the meeting as a footnote on the title page of the submission.
Third-party Submissions and Integrity
If a third party is submitting the manuscript, the submitting agent designation must be used, with the identity of the submitting agent disclosed. We reserve the right to reject any manuscript that does not contain this disclosure. The authors are solely responsible for any manuscript submitted on their behalf.
Editors and reviewers must maintain strict confidentiality of manuscripts during the peer-review process. Sharing a manuscript in whole or in part, outside the scope of what is necessary for assessment, is impermissible prior to an accepted manuscript's official publication date. Reviewers are not permitted to contact authors directly.
Sharing of Materials
Authors must honor any reasonable request for materials, methods, or data necessary to reproduce or validate the research findings during peer review unless it violates the privacy or confidentiality of human research subjects.
Conflicts of Interest by the Editor-in-Chief and/or Section Editors
The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors will recuse themselves from participating in the review process of any manuscript in which there is a potential or actual competing interest.
Plagiarism, Peer Review, and Publication Integrity
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is committed to maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process by upholding the highest standards for all published articles. All manuscripts will be analyzed and evaluated for plagiarism, peer review integrity, and publication integrity. Plagiarized manuscripts or manuscripts with evidence of publication or peer review misconduct will be rejected immediately. If publication misconduct is identified, we reserve the right to rescind acceptance prior to publication.
Authorship is defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Roles & Responsibilities. Contributors who do not meet all criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section with a description of their contribution to the work.
All submitting authors are required to complete their submissions using an ORCID identifier.
One author should be designated as the corresponding author who will be responsible for communication between the authors and the journal editorial office and publisher. This individual will be responsible for ensuring all authors submit copyright forms, coordinating and responding to page proofs, and managing any other necessary contact during the peer review and production processes.
The submission system permits only one author to be identified as the corresponding author of record. However, we recognize that some submissions call for more than one corresponding author to be noted. In such cases, select one author to be the main point of contact for all communications regarding the peer review process of the paper, and on the title page of the manuscript, designate additional co-corresponding authors by including an asterisk after the authors' names in the byline. Include an accompanying footnote on the title page that reads, "*Co-corresponding authors." Please ensure that the title page carries the full affiliation details and email address of any author who should be noted as a corresponding author. If the paper is accepted for publication, the full contact information for all designated co-authors will be listed at the end of the article as per usual journal style.
Changes in Authorship
Changes in authorship after submission or acceptance of a paper are generally not permitted, but the editorial leadership recognizes that in certain circumstances, it may be required. The policy for such cases is as follows:
- A request to alter authorship must be made in writing from the corresponding author to the Editor-in-Chief, with a detailed explanation for the request, the nature of the changes, and the names and affiliations of all authors.
- Written approval of all authors named on the manuscript, as well as any individual(s) being added to the author list must be provided. The Publisher can provide a form for this, if needed.
- Upon receipt of the request and all written approvals of all involved parties, the Editor-in-Chief will consider the request, render a decision, and notify the corresponding author.
- Post-publication changes or alterations to conference abstracts are prohibited.
Author Disclosure Statements
Upon submission, authors are required to fully disclose any interests, funding or employment that may inappropriately influence or affect the integrity of the submission. Authors should disclose
- Competing Interests. A competing interest exists when an individual (or the individual's institution) has financial or personal relationships that may inappropriately influence his actions. These competing interests may be potential or actual, financial or other.
- Personal Financial Interests. Stocks or shares in a company that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; consulting fees or other remuneration from an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article; patents or patent applications that are owned by or licensed to companies/institutions that may gain or lose value from publication of the article.
- Funding. Research support by organizations that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article. This support includes salary, equipment, supplies, honoraria, reimbursement or prepayment for attending symposia, and other expenses.
- Employment. Recent (within the past 5 years), current, or anticipated employment by an organization that may gain or lose financially from publication of the article.
- Other Competing Interests. Any personal relationship which may inappropriately affect the integrity of the research reported (by an author) or the objectivity of the review of the manuscript (by a reviewer or Editor), for example, competition between investigators, previous disagreements between investigators, or bias in professional judgment.
Authors should identify as their institution(s) the facility where the work was performed and executed. Changes in an author’s affiliation after the work was completed, but prior to the submission or publication of the manuscript should be noted using a superscript asterisk in the author listing and a footnote on the title page indicating “Current Address” and listing the new affiliation. Corrections to affiliations or contact information due to relocation after publication is not permitted.
When reproducing copyrighted material such as figures, tables, or excerpted text, the author(s) of the submitted paper must obtain permission from the original publisher or owner of material and submit it concurrently with the manuscript. The figure or table source must be listed in the reference list. With any copyrighted material, include a footnote with proper attribution (e.g. "Reprinted by permission from Jones et al.") and the appropriate reference. All permissions must be supplied at the time of submission. Authors are responsible for any fees that may be incurred by securing permission to reproduce or adapt material from other published sources.
Institutional Review Board Approvals/Waivers
When reporting research involving human data, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed have been assessed by the responsible institutional and national review committee. If no formal ethics committee is available; authors should indicate if research was completed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Approval by a responsible review committee does not preclude editors from forming their own judgment whether the conduct of the research was appropriate.
If the study is judged exempt from review, a statement from the committee is required. Informed consent by participants should always be secured. If not possible, an institutional review board must decide if this is ethically acceptable. This information should be outlined in the cover letter accompanying the submission, and a sentence declaring adherence should be included in the Materials and Methods section of the main text.
Ethics of Experimentation
See the following resources for studies involving human fetuses, fetal tissue, embryos, and embryonic cells:
- NIH Grants Policy Statement
- National Conference of State Legislatures Embryonic and Fetal Research Laws
Ethical Treatment of Animals
All peer-reviewed submissions containing animal experiments must comply with local and national regulatory principles and contain a statement in the Materials and Methods section of the main text stating whether national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
Human Subjects: Patient Consent and Release
If applicable, it is incumbent upon the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce any identifiable images of patients. Any identifying information should not be published in descriptions or photographs unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or patients’ parent/guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be submitted. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity cannot be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are de-identified, the manuscript should contain assurances/statements that such changes do not distort scientific meaning.
In keeping with patients' rights of privacy, the Journal does not require the submission of patient consent forms, but instead requires the author(s) to retain and archive all patient consent documentation. Upon submission of a manuscript for review, the authors must make a statement in the cover letter to the Editor/Journal which attests that they have received and archived written patient consent in addition to providing the requisite statement in the manuscript.
We recommend, but do not require, the sharing and archiving of data and any other artifacts that define and support the results stated in a manuscript in a suitable public repository (in accordance with valid privacy, legal, and ethical guidelines). We recommend that a data availability statement be included in the manuscript in the Methods section or as a separate section at the end of the main text file. Describe the location of the data, details on how it can be accessed and any licensing information. If the data is not publicly available or accessible, that information should also be provided.
Datasets should be cited in the reference list.
Important: Please check with your funding agencies to ensure that are you following their data sharing polices. If your funding agency has additional requirements exceeding our policy, you must follow the requirements of your funder.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., allows for papers that were previously deposited on preprint servers to be submitted to our journals, with the proviso that the author updates any preprint versions with a link to the final published article. All submissions, even those deposited on preprint servers, are subject to peer review and does not guarantee publication in any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journal.
The submitting author of a paper which was previously deposited to a preprint server should include a disclosure on the title page of the manuscript indicating the name and website of the server and include the DOI number of the preprint.
Referencing/citing non-peer-reviewed material that is found on any preprint server is generally discouraged by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journals, but if it is necessary, the citation must indicate that the content is not officially published in a journal, and can only be found on a preprint server.
Published manuscripts for non-Open Access journals become the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. The author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership in such manuscript to the Journal unless alternate arrangements are made prior to publication, including CC-BY licensing or if the Journal publishes under an Open Access model.
Upon acceptance, authors will receive a link to sign and complete the copyright transfer form (subject to exceptions listed above). Authors not permitted to release copyright must still return the form acknowledging the statement for not releasing the copyright.
All accepted manuscripts will go through copyediting, typesetting, figure sizing and placement, author proofing, corrections, revisions (from corrected proofs), online-ahead-of-print release, and lastly, issue assignment. Changes or alterations to a submission are not permitted after acceptance but should be addressed in page proofs.
Instant Online Publication (Just Accepted Program)
Journals in the Just Accepted program (formerly known as Instant Online) publish all accepted papers within 72 hours of receipt of all authors' signed copyright agreement forms in their unedited, uncorrected format on our Just Accepted platform.
The information that is published online, and in all indexing services, is pulled directly from the data that is populated into the fields in ScholarOne Manuscripts™ – NOT from the main text file – when the paper is originally uploaded to the system for peer review. Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline, until the next revision* of the article is published. As such, it is critical that authors enter all authors’ names correctly into the system at the time of submission. Any omissions or errors will remain on our website and in indexing services until the subsequent online version is published.
*The next revision will take place after the corresponding author reviews page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher. Once the alterations are completed, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will then be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.
Please note that the typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 3-6 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.
Journals participating in the Just Accepted program do not post any supplemental files/information until post acceptance steps are completed on the submission.
Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as designated in ScholarOne™ when the manuscript was submitted. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to share the page proofs with co-authors, if desired, and to coordinate all authors' corrections into one proof. The Publisher will not accept corrections from multiple authors/sources.
Author Response to the Galley Proof
The corresponding author is responsible for returning corrected galley proofs. Only corrections directly related to errors in typesetting and/or layout will be allowed. Any requested changes related to content, or that alter the outcome of a study, will require the approval of the Editor, and may require further peer review. If the corresponding author does not respond to page proofs, the manuscript may be delayed in the publication schedule, or published as-is, at the discretion of the Editor. If the corresponding author expects to be unavailable during the time the manuscript is in production, the publisher should be provided with an alternate contact.
Post Publication Corrections
In the event an error is discovered after publication of an article, the corresponding author should submit the correction in writing to the Journal Editorial Office for consideration. After Editor approval, alterations will be made to the online version of the article, and if the errors are significant, an official correction statement will be issued.
- Changes to author affiliations or contact details due to relocation after publication are not permitted.
- Corrections to meeting abstracts will be made only to the online version. The Journal does not issue formal correction statements to meeting abstracts, regardless of the nature of the correction.
- Correction Statements/Errata to published articles that require the reproduction of color figure(s) and/or table(s) may incur additional costs to the author(s).
- Requests for post-publication corrections to funding information will require institutional documentation showing that the funds were to be used for the published work.
Reprints may be ordered by following the special instructions that will accompany the proofs and should be ordered at the time the corresponding author returns the corrected page proofs to the Publisher. Reprints ordered after the issue is printed will be charged at a substantially higher rate.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., follows the guidelines and rules regarding scientific misconduct put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).
Scientific misconduct and violation of publishing ethics vary and can be intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated. Some examples of misconduct and violations include, but are not limited to, the following
- Scientific misconduct: Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of any data constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Authorship disputes: Deliberate misrepresentation of a scientist's contribution to the published work, or purposefully omitting the contributions of a scientist.
- Misappropriation of the ideas of others: Improper use of scholarly exchange and activity may constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
- Violation of generally accepted research practices: Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: Including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biologic, or chemical materials constitutes misconduct.
- Conflict of Interest: Nondisclosure of any direct or indirect conflicts to the Journal, which prevents you from being unbiased, constitutes misconduct.
- Misrepresentation: Deliberate misrepresentation of qualifications, experience, or research accomplishments to advance a research program, to obtain external funding, or for other professional advancement constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Plagiarism: Purposely claiming another's work or idea as your own constitutes misconduct and/or fraud.
- Simultaneous Submission: Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time constitutes misconduct.
- Peer Review Fraud: Individuals who knowingly commit peer review fraud or violate the standard accepted practices of peer review will be reported to their institutions.
Publisher’s Response to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct
The Publisher is committed to helping protect the integrity of the public scientific record by sharing reasonable concerns with authorities who are in the position to conduct an appropriate investigation into any allegation. As such, all allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal who in turn will review the circumstances, possibly in consultation with Associate Editors and/or members of the Editorial Board. Initial fact-finding will usually include a request to all the involved parties to state their case and explain the circumstances in writing. In questions of research misconduct centering on methods or technical issues, the Editor-In-Chief may confidentially consult experts who are blinded to the identity of the individuals, or an outside expert. The Editor-In-Chief will determine if there is enough reasonable evidence that misconduct possibly occurred. Some instances may require the Editor and/or Publisher to report the instance to the authors’ institution for arbitration and/or investigation. The Editor and Publisher will follow the institutions’ findings for resolution.
When allegations concern conflict between authors, the peer review or publication process for the manuscript in question will cease while the process described herein is researched. In the case of allegations against reviewers or editors, they will be substituted in the review process while the matter is investigated.
Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct will be removed from further association with the Journal and reported to their institution(s).
If an inquiry concludes there is a reasonable possibility of misconduct, the Editor-in-Chief will retract the paper from the Journal and the scientific record. If the paper is still under peer review, the Editor-in-Chief will withdraw the paper from consideration to the Journal. If the inquiry leads to a lengthy investigation, the Journal will issue an interim Expression of Concern which will identify the concern for readers until a resolution is reached.
Every attempt will be made to keep all allegations confidential.
The journal and its publisher are committed to upholding the proper protocols and established standards of peer review. Published papers found to be in violation of the accepted standard principles of peer review and scientific publishing will be officially retracted from the literature. An official retraction notice explaining in full detail the need for a retraction will be published.
**Any fees collected for an article that is subsequently retracted are non-refundable.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., permits the use of accepted pre-published manuscripts for the sole purpose of pitching to news organizations under strict embargo, and with the approval of and expressed collaboration with the publisher. A watermarked PDF version of the article (not a Word document or any other editable version) may be shared only with named, personal contacts at trusted news sources upon request. News sources must be informed upon delivery of the PDF that the manuscript is for reference-only purposes and can be used only in preparation of their news coverage of the article. It is strictly prohibited to publicly share, post, or otherwise distribute the PDF in any media format. Upon official publication of the article, news organizations must link directly to the published article on the Publisher’s Journal website. To coordinate publication timing and press efforts, please contact the Director of Marketing.
Three versions of the article format are referenced in the policy guidelines below:
- Original Submission: The article version that is submitted by the author for consideration, before peer review.
- Accepted Version: The article version that has been formally accepted after peer review, prior to any typesetting for the journal. This is the version accepted by the Editor, before proofs, corrections, and typesetting. Also known as the “raw” accepted version of a manuscript.
- Article of Record: This article version is the “version of record” that has been formally copyedited, typeset, and published online ahead of print and/or in a journal issue. It is the same version published in the “Online Now” section of the Journal website.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers offer authors many options and opportunities to self-archive their work.
|Embargo||Personal Website||Institutional Repository or Company Website||Preprint Server||Other Repository|
|Accepted Version||Personal Website: No Institutional or Other Repository: 12 months post-publication *No embargo if Open Access is purchased||Yes||Yes||No||Yes|
|Article of Record||Yes||With Open Access license or publisher permission only||With Open Access license or publisher permission only||No||With Open Access license or by funder requirement|
|Embargo||Personal Website||Institutional Repository or Company Website||Preprint Server||Other Repository|
|Article of Record||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||Yes|
Learn more about publishing your work Open Access here.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ society partners or associated affiliates may set self-archiving policies independently, outside of the general policies mentioned below. Authors should refer to the copyright policy of their chosen journal, or by contacting the specific journal editorial office directly. In addition, specific funding organizations have separate agreements and authors should refer to the policies of those specific funding agencies prior to the submission of their manuscript.
If your submission is formally accepted after peer review in one of our journals, authors must include an acknowledgement of acceptance for publication on all archive sites and, following online publication, authors must include the following notice on the first page:
This is the original submission version (pre-peer review) of the following article: [full citation], which has now been formally published in final form at [journal title] at [link to final article using the DOI]. This original submission version of the article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers’ Self-Archiving Terms and Conditions.
The original submission version posted may never be updated or replaced with the article of record version unless the author chooses to publish their paper Open Access under any of the Creative Commons Licenses available through the Publisher. If you are interested in publishing your work Open Access, please feel free to review our Open Access Policies and Licenses or contact us.
Other Terms and Conditions
Authors may use either the original submission or accepted version for curricular or teaching purposes, dissertations, theses, or books, provided that all posted versions include the aforementioned policies, and follow all guidelines and requirements specified. Additionally, authors may share original submission or accepted versions with researchers and research colleagues provided that such sharing is not for commercial purposes.
The self-archived submitted and accepted versions may only be used in non-commercial capacities. Individual users may view, print, download, and copy self-archived articles, as well as text and data mine the content conditions for non-commercial and non-promotional research and private study purposes, under the following requirements
- The authors' moral rights are not compromised and there is clear "attribution" of the author(s) in the shared work.
- The authors’ integrity remains intact; the work should never be altered in such a way that the author's reputation may be damaged.
- Any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content.
- Self-archived content may never be republished verbatim in whole or in part in print or online formats.
U.S. Sanctioned Countries
The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on US foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. (Source: Office of Foreign Assets Control – Sanctions Program and Information)
Our journal Editors welcome contributions from researchers around the world; however, they are also required to follow sanction laws and regulations. As of August 2020, sanction measures imposed by the United States, United Nations, European Union, and Australia are currently in place against the following countries: Cuba, Crimea, Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Journal editors will treat with caution any submission from a sanctioned country regarding the subject matter and will seek appropriate legal advice from the publisher if necessary.
Papers from sanctioned countries that are submitted to any Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., journal MUST contain a confirmation statement after the conclusion section of the manuscript which indicates that EACH listed author confirms that their research is supported by an institution that is primarily involved in education or research.
For further questions, please contact our Director of Production and Editorial Operations.
Archiving and Preservation
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., deposits and archives all publications in Portico for long-term digital preservation. Your article will be easily searchable on Google, Google Scholar, and other search engines.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers has partnered with Editage and Impact Science to provide a dynamic suite of specialized editorial services to ensure your manuscript has the impact it deserves.
Make Your Manuscript Submission-Ready
English Language Editing Services
Our pre-submission English Language Editing Services pair you with a highly qualified native English-speaking editor within your specific field of study. Dedicated support includes a detailed review of grammar, punctuation, terminology, and spelling, as well as an intensive edit for organization. We also offer post-submission support where needed.
English-Language Translation with Editing Services
Write your paper in your native language and our expert team will provide you with a translation that meets international publication standards while preserving the science and accuracy of your manuscript. Our translators and editors offer subject-specific expertise and editing skills to ensure that your manuscript conveys every nuance of your research to a global audience.
Accelerate Your Research Impact
Research Promotion Services
Amplify your research with engaging infographics, video abstracts, plain language summaries, and more to ensure your manuscript is discovered, read, and cited. Our specialized team of communication experts, scientists, and designers will transform your research into impactful text, graphical, and audio-visual formats that resonate with a wider audience and increase engagement.
Visit our Author Services portal now for more information and to get started!
All Editage services are fee-based services that authors can opt-into as an added author benefit to amplify the readability, visibility, findability, and shareability of their work.
Ensure maximum visibility, discoverability, and impact for your article with our Liebert Open Access (OA) option
Does your research funder have an open access mandate or would you like to expand the dissemination of your research?
The Liebert Open Access option enables authors to publish open access in our esteemed subscription-based journals.
The benefits of Liebert Open Access include:
- High visibility; open access articles are freely available online upon publication
- You retain copyright with the open access license allowing broad dissemination of your research
- You can freely share your article in repositories and research networks without restrictions
- Easy compliance with open access mandates
- Rigorous editorial and peer-review
- Targeted email announcement featuring a direct link to article
Identification and Marketing
Open access articles are listed with an OA icon in journal tables of content (TOC), TOC alerts, and in marketing announcements. Open access articles are highlighted and promoted in targeted email announcements to thousands of research leaders in your field.
Copyright and Licensing
If you choose to publish with open access, you will retain copyright of your article and a Creative Commons license will be applied. The liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) license is the default open access license used at Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The CC-BY license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
Ordering Open Access
Once your article has been accepted for publication in a journal, you will receive an email with information on ordering Liebert Open Access. If you would like more information about Liebert Open Access or would like to order open access, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Publishing open access includes an article publication charge (APC) and authors are asked to fill out a short open access order form. You can pay by credit card or receive an invoice to be returned with payment or via bank transfer. Please remember that traditional subscription journals can carry mandatory or optional author fees. The Liebert Open Access APC does not cover or replace existing publication or author fees.
Publishing biomedical or biotechnology research?
Biomedical researchers should consider publishing in BioResearch Open Access, a fully open access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing top research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. For details, please visit the information for authors on the journal website.
*Please note that PubMedCentral, not the Publisher, has sole control over when the paper is made live on PMC.
Browse journals in the Liebert Open Access portfolio:
Please contact our Author Benefits Manager for more details or further inquiries.
- There are no submission fees to Astrobiology
- Open Access and Creative Commons licensing options are available. Contact our Open Access Manager for more information.
- For pricing and purchasing reprints, contact our Reprints Manager.
- All manuscripts submitted to Astrobiology on or after January 1st, 2021 will be subject to a page charge fee of $75 USD per typeset page. All manuscripts submitted on or before December 31st, 2020 will not be subject to this fee, even if the paper is not accepted until after January 1st. Contact our Page Charge Coordinator for more information.
- Color images are welcome, but the authors are responsible for the cost of publishing in color. There are two options for color publication in Astrobiology: print and online or online only. Prices are based on the number of color figures submitted in conjunction with the main text; there is no fee for supplementary material. Accommodations may be made for authors with limited funding at the discretion of the Color Art Manager.
Print and online color publication
$950 USD for up to 5 color figures, $200 USD for each additional figure
Online-only color publication
$600 USD for up to 5 color figures, $100 USD for each additional figure
Any fees collected or payments associated with a submitted and/or published paper that is subsequently withdrawn and/or retracted for any reason are non-refundable.